Pedigree of Sancha de Ayala wife of Sir Walter Blount: Ancestors of George Washington & Hillary Lillian Vaughan, wife of Jesse Otto Jeffery Scarff of Mount Pleasant, IA and Cheyenne, WY: CASTLLIAN (via Various Noble Houses of Castille) / ETHIOPIAN (via Melendo St. Peter with proof “Lampader” means “St. Peter”) / JEWISH (via Rabbi Solomon et al) / VISIGOTHIC (via Peoples Indigenous to Spain prior to the Berber Invasion) / Sir Henry Skipwith II dies bankrupt in India / with Notes on Blount, Somerville & Griffith

•November 15, 2016 • Comments Off on Pedigree of Sancha de Ayala wife of Sir Walter Blount: Ancestors of George Washington & Hillary Lillian Vaughan, wife of Jesse Otto Jeffery Scarff of Mount Pleasant, IA and Cheyenne, WY: CASTLLIAN (via Various Noble Houses of Castille) / ETHIOPIAN (via Melendo St. Peter with proof “Lampader” means “St. Peter”) / JEWISH (via Rabbi Solomon et al) / VISIGOTHIC (via Peoples Indigenous to Spain prior to the Berber Invasion) / Sir Henry Skipwith II dies bankrupt in India / with Notes on Blount, Somerville & Griffith

Revised Nov. 29, 2016

According to a “New York Times” article of 4 Dec 2008 by Nicholas Wade, DNA studies by Mark Jobling of the University of Leicester in England and Francesc Calafell of Pompeu Fabra University in Barcelona, Spain have found that of the population of the Iberian Peninsula (which includes the countries of Spain, Portugal, Andorra, and the British dependency of Gibraltar), about 20% have Jewish ancestry and 11% have Moorish ancestry.  Says Wade: “Spain and Portugal have a history of fervent Catholicism, but almost a third of the population have a non-Christian genetic heritage.” 

This is the story of one such line, and its survival into the modern era.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Archaeologia Cambrensis The Journal Of The Cambrian Archaeological Association Fourth Series Vol. X No. 37 January 1879.  London: J. Parker, 377, Strand, London.

A very useful resource for Welsh history and genealogy.  pp. 71-72 mentions Lampeter in Cardiganshire in connection with a detailed account of the Griffith family of Wichenor in Staffordshire.  Issues from 1846–1899 plus index may be read online at:

http://europeana-journals.llgc.org.uk/browse/listissues/llgc-id:2919943

*

Boulger, Demetrius, ed.  (1888).  The Asiatic Quarterly Review Volume VI July–October 1888 July 1888.  London: T. Fisher Unwin, 26 Paternoster Square.

Demetrius Charles Boulger (1853–1928) was a prolific British historian and a member of the Royal Asiatic Society.  Available as free download from HathiTrust Digital Library.  Search under “Demetrius Boulger.”  Subject “Asia.”  Death of Sir Henry Skipwith II: see pp. 391–393.

*

Bridgeman, M.A., Rev. The Hon. George T.O.  (1876).  History Of The Princes Of South Wales.  Millgate, Wigan.: Thomas Birch

Available as free download from Google Books.  George Thomas Orlando Bridgeman (1823–1895), educated at Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge, was the 2nd son of the 2nd Earl of Bradford.  He was a member of a family long associated with the Church of England, and became a prominent cleric in his own right.

*

Burlington Fine Arts Club.  (1916).  Catalogue Of A Collection Of Objects Of British Heraldic Art To The End Of The Tudor Period.  London: Chiswick Press Charles Whittingham And Co.

The Burlington Fine Arts Club of London (1866–1952) was a gentleman’s club of amateur art enthusiasts which held exhibitions in its clubhouse.  See pp. 3–5 for Blount heraldry incorporating Ayala.

*

Croke, Sir Alexander; of Studley Priory, Oxfordshire.  (1823).  The Genealogical History Of The Croke Family Originally Named Le Blount Vol. II.  Oxford: W. Baxter for John Murray, Albemarle Street, London; and Joseph Parker, Oxford.

Available as free download from Internet Archive.  Sir Alexander Croke graduated Doctor of Civil Law from Oriel College, Oxford.  Chapter III of Vol. II contains extensive material on the family of Sancha de Ayala.  It would be pointless to address the errors, chief among them the purported de Ayala descent from Urraca, daughter of “Alonso,” king of Leon.  Ironically, the Croke family didn’t descend from the Blounts.

*

Farmerie, Todd A.; Taylor, Nathaniel L.  (1998).  NOTES ON THE ANCESTRY OF SANCHA DE AYALA.  Prepublication MS of article subsequently published (with minor emendations) in the New England Historical and Genealogical Register 103 (1998), 36–48.

Todd A. Farmerie and Nathaniel L. Taylor are co-owners of Internet message board “soc.genealogy.medieval.” Farmerie is Clinical Associate Professor in the School of Molecular Biosciences at Washington State University (Pullman).  Farmarie claims descent from Robert Abell, a descendant of Sancha de Ayala.  Taylor, of Barrington, Rhode Island, holds a PhD in Medieval History from Harvard, and is a professional genealogist and Fellow of the American Society of Genealogists.   Article is available on the Internet under the above title.  Some references cited are in Spanish.  The article refutes three claims of royal ancestry and  two claims of descent from Muslim princesses.  The article doesn’t present Sancha de Ayala’s actual ancestry, leaving the reader with the impression there’s little of interest in her pedigree.  Farmerie and Taylor claim “Sancha is also an ancestress of Queen Elizabeth II,” without giving the descent; and acknowledge George Washington’s family as among Sancha’s descendants.  Unfortunately, genealogy being the rather dry subject it often is, linking Medieval lines to more recent historical figures has become a shameless method of promoting the author’s work.  Article can be viewed at:

http://nltaylor.net/pdfs/a_SanchaNotes.pdf

*

Fletcher, Richard.  (2006).  Moorish Spain.  Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Richard Fletcher was Professor of Medieval History at University of York, UK.

*

Fletcher, Richard.  (1990).  The Quest for El Cid.  New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.

Same author bio as above.

*

G.E.C.  (1900).  Complete Baronetage Volume I 1611–1625.  Exeter: William Pollard & Co., Ltd. 39 & 40 North Street.

Available as free download from Internet Archive.  Series consists of 5 volumes with a 6th volume as an index.  George Edward Cokayne was Clarenceux King of Arms Herald at the College of Arms, London.

*

Goodman, Anthony.  (1992).  John of Gaunt The Exercise of Princely Power in Fourteenth-Century Europe.  Burnt Mill, Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK Limited.

Anthony Goodman is English Professor Emeritus of Medieval and Renaissance Studies at the University of Edinburgh.

*

Henze, Paul B.  (2000).  Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia.  New York: Palgrave.

Paul B. Henze was a former CIA and National Security Council specialist.  After leaving government service he became a consultant for the RAND Corp.  Henze devotes little of his text to slavery, but notes it had ancient origins in Ethiopia, which he identifies as probably part of the Land of Punt.

*

Hitchcock, Richard.  (2008).  Mozarabs in Medieval and Early Modern Spain Identities and Influences.  Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Company. 

Richard Hitchcock is Professor Emeritus at the Institute of Arab and Islamic Studies, University of Exeter, UK.

*

Howard, L.L.D., F.S.A., Joseph Jackson; ed.  (1868).  Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica Vol. I.  London: Hamilton, Adams, And Co.

Available as free download from Google Books.  Joseph Jackson Howard (1827–1902), British attorney, started the periodical Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica in 1866 and was a founder of the Harleian Society.  An extremely valuable resource for British genealogy.

*

Keay, John.  (1991).  The Honourable Company A History of the English East India Company.  New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

John Keay is a British author specializing in Asia, exploration, and Scotland.

*

Marotti, Arthur F.  (1995).  Manuscript, Print, and the English Renaissance Lyric.  Ithaca, NY and London: Cornell University Press.

Arthur F. Marotti is professor of English at Wayne State University, Detroit, MI.  pp. 41 & 196–199 discuss the poetry of William, Henry, and Thomas Skipwith.

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Netanyahu, B.  (2001).  The Origins Of The Inquisition in Fifteenth Century Spain Second Edition.  New York: The New York Review of Books.

Benzion Netanyahu (1910–2012) was Professor Emeritus of History at Cornell University and the father of Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.  This massive volume is considered authoritative on Jews and the Inquisition.  Of interest is a discussion of the position of Jews under the Visigoths.  The background on the massacre of Jews in Toledo in 1109 following the death of Alfonso VI and the attendant conversions is especially germane to the Sancha de Ayala case study.

*

Pryce, Huw, ed.; Insley, Charles, asst. ed.  (2005).  The Acts Of Welsh Rulers 1120–1283 Published on behalf of the History and Law Committee of the University of Wales Board of Celtic Studies.  Cardiff: University Of Wales Press.

Huw Pryce was educated at Jesus College, Oxford, and is Professor of Welsh History at Bangor University.  Charles Insley is Senior Lecturer in Medieval History at The University of Manchester.  This volume is essential for genealogists working with Welsh royal lines.  pp. 165–166 document use of the name “Lampeter” in the reign of King Henry I of England.

*

Richardson, Douglas; Everingham, Kimball G., ed.  (2013).  Royal Ancestry A Study In Colonial And Medieval Families Volume V.  Salt Lake City, Utah: The Author.

Douglas Richardson was educated at University of California (Santa Barbara) and University of Wisconsin (Madison).  Richardson is a professional genealogist and author based in Salt Lake City.  His “Royal Ancestry Series”, though not without error, comprise the best books of their type.  Volume V pp. 321–323 contains extensive notes on George Washington’s ancestors, including the descent from Constance Blount and the Lawrence Washington/Margaret Butler marriage.

*

Roberts, Gary Boyd.  (2012 reprint).  Ancestors of American Presidents 2009 Edition compiled by Gary Boyd Roberts with charts prepared in part by Christopher Challendar Child from originals by Julie Helen Otto.  Boston: New England Historic Genealogical Society.

Gary Boyd Roberts is Senior Research Scholar Emeritus at the New England Historic Genealogical Society.  pp. 659-664 show descents from Sancha de Ayala for these Presidents of the United States: William Henry Harrison, Benjamin Harrison, George Herbert Walker Bush, George Walker Bush, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, George Washington (two lines), Grover Cleveland, Herbert Clark Hoover, and Gerald Rudolph Ford.  I’m not fond of omnibus volumes like this one.  Anything here should be independently verified.

*

Roth, Norman.  (2002).  Conversos, Inquisition, and the Expulsion of the Jews from Spain With a new afterword.  Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press. 

Norman Roth is Professor Emeritus of Hebrew and Semitic Studies at University of Wisconsin–Madison.

*

The Publications Of The Surtees Society Established In The Year M.DCCC.XXXIV Vol. XLV.  For The Year M.DCCC.LXIV.  (1865).  Testamenta Eboracensia.  A Selection Of Wills From The Registry At York.  Vol. III.  Durham: Andrews And Co.; etc.

The Surtees Society, founded in 1834, is dedicated to publishing manuscripts illustrative of the ancient kingdom of Northumbria.  For the will of Sir Walter Griffith see pp. 269–270.

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Wrottesley, Major-General The Hon. G.  (1905).  Pedigrees From The Plea Rolls, Collected From The Pleadings In The Various Courts Of Law A.D. 1200 To 1500, From The Original Rolls In The Public Record Office.  Pub: The Author.

Available as free download from Internet Archive and as reprint from Nabu.  George Wrottesley (1827–1909), 3rd son of John Wrottesley, 2nd Baron Wrottesley, was a prominent English army officer and an avid genealogist specializing in Staffordshire.  He was a founder of The William Salt Archaeological Society which was devoted to the history of Staffordshire.  In 1936 the Society became the Staffordshire Record Society.

__________________________________________

LINE

1. Sancha de Ayala m. Sir Walter Blount 2. Anne Blount m. Thomas Griffith 3. Sir John Griffith m. Katherine Tyrwhit 4. Rhys (Richard) Griffith m. Margaret — 5. Joan (Jane) Griffith m. (his 1st) Sir Lionel Dymoke 6. Alice Dymoke m. (his 2nd) Sir William Skipwith 7. Henry Skipwith m. Jane Hall 8. Sir William Skipwith m. (1st) Margaret Cave 9. Sir Henry Skipwith, Bart. m. (1st) Amy (“Tresham”) Kempe 10. Diana Skipwith m. (his 2nd) Edward Dale 11. Elizabeth Dale m. (his 1st) William Rogers 12. Hannah (Rogers) Mitchell m. (2nd) Edward Blackmore 13. Joseph Blakemore m. Anne Sanders 14. Hannah Blakemore m. (1st) William Duncan 15. Joseph Duncan m. Elizabeth Peters 16. Minerva Jane Duncan m. Peyton Milton Wilcox 17. Nancy Theodocia Wilcox m. (2nd) Thomas Calvin McMillen 18. Nora Ann McMillen m. (1st) Eric Lyman Vaughan 19. Hillary Lillian Vaughan m. Jesse Otto Jeffery Scarff  20. Valerie Berniece Jeffery Scarff m. Ralph Vernon Chipman.

SKIPWITH EXCURSUS.

(G.E.C., pp. 214-215.)

Above:  This pedigree from The Visitation of Herefordshire 1569 purports to show the descent of William Cecil Lord Burleigh, Queen Elizabeth I’s most trusted advisor, and brother to Margaret Cecil, from Turberville, Lord of Coytiffe and Kyrikvoell.  The Tudor era saw the rise of families of Welsh descent.  The accuracy of the earlier portions of the pedigree is questionable; having been raised to the dignity of a baron Cecil felt an ancient tree must grow within it.

The children of Sir Henry Skipwith, Bart., and wife Amy Kempe were, in order of birth: William (died before father); Henry, 2nd Bart.; Elizabeth; Thomas (evidently died before his brother Henry); Diana; Grey, 3rd Bart.; Anne.

Blandina Acton, 2nd wife of Sir Henry Skipwith, was the daughter of John Penvin of Badgworth, Somerset, and widow of John Acton, a prominent London goldsmith. 

A Gentleman of the Privy Chamber attended to the king in the king’s private apartment within a royal residence.  This office, dating to the reign of King Henry VII, was a plum as it gave the holder considerable influence with the king.  This explains why Sir Henry Skipwith entertained King Charles I at Cotes, as the two were friends of some standing.  However, when King Charles II ascended the throne, the Skipwith family was unable to recover any property sold to pay the fine imposed by Parliament during the interregnum.  Most such transactions were left intact by the new king who didn’t wish to unnecessarily antagonize his former enemies.  He contented himself with hunting down and executing those who played the most prominent roles in the beheading of his father.  The Skipwith family’s loyalty to the elder Charles counted for little with the son—hardly a singular tale—proving politics can be as murderous as the block.

So Grey Skipwith and his sister Diana, lacking any prospects in post-Restoration Britain, remained in the wilderness of Virginia—which had become their home in the mid-17th century.  The following, abstracted by Fleet from Lancaster Co., VA Record Book No. 2, 1654–1666, p. 345, testifies to that relationship.  Though Diana Skipwith belonged to a prominent family, she wasn’t a prominent member of that family, but settling in early VA as a single woman showed no lack of courage.

Sir Henry Skipwith was a poet of some reputation who composed “An Elegie on the Death of my never enough Lamented Master King Charles the first”: “Weepe, weepe even mankinde weepe, soe much is dead,” etc.  He should have wept over his lack of business acumen—after years of contracting debt, the Parliamentary fine was sufficient to push him into insolvency.

In remembrance of ancestors who were poets, I’m inspired to contribute these verses, entitled The State of the Cavalier:

The king has lost his head

And is consequently dead.

Happy cavaliers

Just pickin’ and grinnin’.

Virginny ain’t such a bad place to be

But you might get scalped when you go out to pee.

Happy cavaliers

Just pickin’ and grinnin’.

We’ll all wind up in an unmarked grave.

There’s nothing left to save.

Happy cavaliers

Just pickin’ and grinnin’.

This next item, from the records of the East India Company, illustrates the large sums Sir Henry Skipwith risked, using land as collateral.  The Parliamentary fine of 1,114 pounds, stiff though it was, should not of its own bankrupted him.

Richardson reports Sir Henry Skipwith was buried on 7 Nov 1655 at Stapleford in Leicestershire (during the 2nd year of The Protectorate), the actual source being a parish register; presumably he means the old church of St. Mary Magdalen, which was rebuilt in 1783 and now only used for civic functions.  It’s said most of the family memorials were moved to the new church, but I have found no reference to Sir Henry Skipwith, so perhaps his was not. 

(Flag of East India Company.  Founded under royal charter, the Company was also favored by Oliver Cromwell.  Lost ships were part of the cost of doing business.  The Company sought to discourage private trading, claiming its charter gave it exclusive right to trade between India and Great Britain.)

G.E.C.’s statement that Sir Henry Skipwith “d. about 1658” is due to confusing Sir Henry Skipwith, the 1st Baronet, with his son, the 2nd Baronet.  The 2nd Baronet died unmarried in India ca. 1657, where he had traveled to repair the family fortune, but met a tragic end.  See “The Asiatic Quarterly Review” of Jul 1888:

Sir Henry Skipwith II had friends at the East India Company.  The next letter dated 27 Feb 1657/8 from the same issue of “The Asiatic Quarterly Review” proves he was indigent.  He was deceased by the time the letter arrived.  In the days of sailing ships the voyage from England to India via the Cape of Good Hope could take 6 months, not including overland travel.  The cycle of writing a letter and receiving a reply might take 18 months.

The last record concerning Sir Henry Skipwith II is from a “soc.genealogy.medieval” thread containing remarks made by MichaelAnne Guido, which I’ll cite verbatim.

I cannot locate “The Wynter Family.”  However, Masulipatim where Sir Henry Skipwith II died is in the lower 3rd of India on its east coast.  It was a major trading hub.  Sir Henry Skipwith II had ventured deep into Asia.  Across the Bay of Bengal lay Burma and Thailand.

The Act of Administration record gives Sir Henry Skipwith II’s death as 1656.  The “Cholmondely” letter places the death in the summer of 1657.  In any event, due to the lag in communications with India, his estate wasn’t entered until much later.

At his death Henry was living with Edward Winter (b. ca. 1622, d. 2 Mar 1686).  Winter’s ship “The Tiger” was evidently named for a semi-mythical contest between Winter and a tiger, in which he drowned the beast.  In 1657, “The Tiger” was leaving Masulipatim for a trading voyage to Burma when she capsized, with a loss of all of her passengers and freight.  The “Masulipatim Roads” means “shipping lanes.”  The loss was valued at 20,000 pounds, a very large sum for the day.  This gives an idea of the scale of investment in the India trade.  It was a high-stakes game and Henry was in over his head.  The name of the ship and the exact date it was lost doesn’t alter the fact that Henry couldn’t absorb the loss and died a pauper.  The entry of his estate in England was a formality.  There was nothing to distribute to anyone, regardless of where his relatives might be found.  Had Henry merely wanted to escape Cromwell, Virginia was much closer than India, but Virginia was a step down in class for Henry and his friends.  Henry wasn’t a 2nd or 3rd son.

What became of the remains of Sir Henry Skipwith II?  It’s very unlikely the body was shipped back to England.  The East India Company had religious facilities and cemeteries for Europeans.  His remains could have been deposited in the Winter property or at Fort St. George at Madras.  Regardless, the cemetery probably no longer exists, being a reminder of British colonialism. 

There were 3 Skipwith baronetcies, that of Metheringham, extinct 4 Jun 1756, Newbold Hall, extinct 28 Jan 1790, and Prestwould, which has survived.  Sir Thomas George Skipwith (ca. 1735–1790), 4th Baronet of Newbold Hall, having no children, left his estates to Sir Grey Skipwith, 8th Baronet of Prestwould.  The present Baronet of Prestwould, 12th in succession, is Sir Patrick Alexander d’Estoteville Skipwith, a lineal descendant of Diana Skipwith’s brother Grey.

(For descendants see column “Family Of Hillary Lillian Vaughan.”)

___________________________

TO THE STORY PROPER: HAVING SEEN THE END WE INQUIRE AS TO THE BEGINNING.

Sancha de Ayala (ca. 1360–1418) m. Sir Walter4 Blount (John3, Walter2, William1), and is one of my ancestors through the Griffith family. She came to England in the household of Constance of Castile, 2nd wife of John of Gaunt. Sir Walter Blount was a close associate of Gaunt, and it was through Gaunt that he met Sancha.  In 1381 Sir Walter Blount purchased the manor of Barton in Derbyshire, part of which was settled on Sancha as her dower lands.

Gaunt “had a soft spot for Sancha Garcia [de Ayala], who married his knight Walter Blount, and to whom he gave a New Year’s present in 1380.”  Goodman (1992), pp. 135-136.

Sancha was a member of a highly evolved and sophisticated culture in Toledo, Spain. The area became part of the kingdom of Castile on 25 May 1085 when Alfonso VI, king of Castile and Leon, ejected the Moors.  The Moors had ruled Toledo since the early 8th century.

The following charts are from an article published in 2000 (in Spanish) by Balbina M. Caviro (Balbina Caviro Martinez) of the Complutense University of Madrid illustrating some maternal and paternal ancestry of Sancha de Ayala.  These form a general outline of her ancestry and don’t show all of her family connections.  [See Todd A. Farmarie and Nathaniel L. Taylor (1998) for information on other families.]  Sancha appears in the first chart as wife of “Guater Blont.”  Even without knowledge of Spanish one can comprehend the relationships.  In medieval Spain people might use the surname of either parent.  In Sancha’s case, she used the surname of her mother’s family because it was more prominent than her father’s.  “Arbol” is Spanish for “tree,” so the charts are “Genealogical tree of,” etc.  Click on images to read them.

In the next chart, “Melendo aben Lampadero Abdelaziz b. Lampader” was Mozarab, which will be discussed at length below.  The chart indicates Melendo’s grandson Pedro Suarez as “primero en usar el escudo del castillo,” which I loosely translate as “first to wear the coat of arms or shield of Castille,” indicating he was the first of his family to be armigerous.  It marks the acceptance of the family by the Castilian authorities, and the point at which we can consider them assimilated.  We are not given the name of the wife of Pedro Suarez, but his son Gomez Perez [I] de Toledo married Orabuena Gutierez, daughter of Gutierez Armildez.  Among the children of this couple was Archbishop Gutierre Gomez.

How did Sancha come to the attention of Constance, a daughter of Pedro I “The Cruel”, king of Castile?  The short version is Sancha’s sister Teresa was a mistress of Pedro I, and allegedly had a daughter by him, listed as “Maria de Ayala o Castilla” (Maria de Ayala of Castile) in the chart of Ines de Ayala.

Sancha left Castile, where her family had resided for many centuries, because her parents Diego and Inez, though they had powerful connections, were not wealthy or prominent enough to secure an advantageous marriage for her—or her sister Teresa, who drifted into an illicit affair with Pedro I.  In that era it was the custom with high born women like Constance of Castile to take into their household women of good family to wait in attendance upon them (hence the term “lady in waiting”).  We romanticize figures like Sancha de Ayala, and in her case it’s justified.  She was an ordinary woman possessed of a fascinating gene pool who found herself at the crossroads of history.

 

(Constance of Castile, 2nd wife of John of Gaunt and a daughter of Pedro I “The Cruel,” king of Castile and Leon.  John of Gaunt claimed the throne of Castile and Leon in right of Constance his wife, but was denied it.  Constance was the daughter of Pedro I by Maria de Padilla, whom Pedro I had secretly married, but was forced to repudiate and retain as his mistress.  Constance’s murky origin hampered Gaunt’s campaign.)

Pedro I’s chaotic personal life, and his failure to produce an acceptable heir, eventually led to his murder on 14 Mar 1369 at the hands of his illegitimate half-brother Henry of Trastamara.  Henry exploited animosity toward the Jews to secure powerful allies against Pedro I.  Henry said Pedro I was too pro-Jewish. 

The struggle between Pedro I and Henry was the seed of the dreaded Spanish Inquisition.  Henry was a usurper and weak, which suited the nobility who didn’t want a strong monarch.  The Catholic church stepped in to fill the power vacuum.  Anti-Jewish riots erupted.  The Inquisition peaked during the reign of the “Catholic Monarchs” Ferdinand and Isabella—the Ferdinand and Isabella who financed Christopher Columbus.

Of Sir Walter Blount, grandfather of Walter Blount, 1st Lord Mountjoy, The Complete Peerage Vol. IX, sub Mountjoy, pp. 331–333, has this:

Sir Walter Blount is a character in Shakespeare’s “I Henry IV.”  His mutterings are unremarkable.  Nonetheless, in battle Blount pretends to be the king, and is slain.  That earned him accolades for gallantry, but he was deaf in the grave.

Sancha de Ayala isn’t a genealogical curiosity.  She has thousands of descendants—including George Washington—but has never received commensurate treatment.  According to Sir Walter Blount’s biography in The History of Parliament online, the couple had 5 sons and 2 daughters.

To banish any doubt regarding the Blount family’s descent from Sancha de Ayala, Burlington Fine Arts Club (1916), pp. 3-5 lists 40 shields of arms for William Blount Lord Mountjoy (d. 1534).  Ayala appears in numbers 19, 20, 21, 23, 28, 29, and 36.

George Washington’s lines from Sancha de Ayala [as reported by Roberts (2009)]:

LINE 1:

Sancha de Ayala m. Sir Walter Blount

Sir Thomas Blount m. Margaret Gresley

Sir Thomas Blount m. Catherine Clifton

Richard Blount m. Dorothy de la Ford

Elizabeth Blount m. Thomas Woodford

Ursula Woodford m. Thomas Light

Elizabeth Light m. Robert Washington

Lawrence Washington m. Margaret Butler

Lawrence Washington m. Amphylis Twigden

John Washington m. Anne Pope

Lawrence Washington m. Mildred Warner

Augustine Washington m. Mary Ball

George Washington

LINE 2:

Sancha de Ayala m. Sir Walter Blount

Constance Blount m. Sir John Sutton

John Sutton m. Elizabeth Berkeley

Sir Edmund Sutton m. Joyce Tiptoft

Sir John Sutton m. Anne Clarell

Margaret Sutton m. John Butler

William Butler m. Margaret Greeke

Margaret Butler m. Lawrence Washington

etc.

[see also Richardson (2013) pp. 321–323]

Croke, Vol. II (1823), p. 189, abstracts Sir Walter Blount’s will, and I think Croke may be trusted here:

“The will of Sir Walter Blount is dated at Lyverpole, the 16th of December, 1401.  He directs his body to be buried in the church of Saint Mary of Newerk, at Leicester.  He mentions his wife Sanchia as living, his sons John, Thomas, and James; his daughters Constantia, Baroness of Dudley, and Anna Griffith.  The Executor is John Blount, his brother, and he appointed as Supervisors of his Will, his cousin, Thomas Foljambe, and Thomas Langley, Keeper of the King’s Privy Seal.  It was proved the 1st of August, 1403.”

As The Complete Peerage notes, Sir Walter Blount and Sancha de Ayala were buried at St. Mary’s, the Newark, Leicester.  Leicester is the county seat of Leicestershire.  One of the more endearing customs of the English are place names of great antiquity which confuse those of us expecting street signs everywhere.  According to an old history of Leicester, the liberty of the Newarke was a small rectangular district lying on the east bank of the River Soar (a tributary of the River Trent), to the south of the old walled area of the borough and at the edge of the gravel terrace on which Leicester is built.  The name “Newarke” means “New Work,” to distinguish it from the older part of the city.  In 1330 the area was possessed by Henry, Earl of Lancaster.  Of the nearby 12th century castle only traces remain.  Earl Henry founded a hospital to the south of the castle, which his son Henry of Grosmont, the 1st Duke of Lancaster, enlarged.  The duke also founded a chantry college known as St. Mary’s of the Newarke.  The chantry employed a priest to say masses for the benefit of the dead who were thought to be working their way through Purgatory.  Sir Walter Blount’s choice of final resting place was in keeping with his devotion to the House of Lancaster.

The Harleian Society, Vol. 28, The Visitation of Shropshire 1623, pp. 50–57 contains extensive material on the Blount family.  On p. 55, “Ann ux….. Griffith de Wichenor in com. Staff.” is shown as a daughter of “Walterus Blount miles = Sanchia de Ayala Hispana.” who appear on p. 54.

[In this context “miles.” (Latin) means “knight.”  “Hispana” in Latin and Spanish is “feminine singular pertaining to Spain”, so what is meant here is simply “Spanish woman.”]

[“ux.” (Latin) is the abbreviation for “uxor” which means “wife.”]

Below:  Family records kept by Sir Walter Griffith II, son of Sir Walter Griffith I and 2nd wife Agnes Constable.  The heading indicates Sir Walter Griffith II provided this list of ancestor obituaries on 26 Sep 1511.  In latin.  The 5th obituary, for Thomas Griffith, correctly identifies the wife of Thomas as “Anna,” but makes her the daughter of Thomas Blount, who was actually her brother.  The will of Sir Walter Blount and The Visitation of Shropshire make it clear “Anna Griffith” was Sir Walter Blount’s daughter.  The 8th obituary is for Agnes (Constable) (Griffith) Clifton, mother of Sir Walter Griffith II.)

(Howard, 1868, p. 64.  Click on image to enlarge.)

Wichenor, the seat of the Griffith family, is 5 1/2 miles NE of Lichfield near the River Trent.  Domesday Book records that Robert of Stafford held 2 hides in Wychnor in Seisdon Hundred, and Robert held it of him, and formerly 4 thegns held it; and it consisted of land for 4 ploughs, and in demesne was 1 plough, 4 villans and 2 bordars.  There was a mill, 20 acres of meadow, and woodland half a league long and 5 furlongs wide.  In modern terms, the woodland alone of this estate was approximately 1 1/2 miles long and 3,300 feet wide.  In all, a very substantial country manor.

But not all was bucolic at Wichenor, as the following incident attests.  It probably occurred toward the end of the Chancellorship of John Stafford, Bishop of Bath and Wells, perhaps ca. 1440–1443:

Thomas  Nevowe was evidently harvesting peas for a religious house and the king when he was set upon by Walter Griffith, son of Sir John Griffith, and a large party of thugs from the Griffith estates.  Nevowe, fearing a beating or even murder, fled the scene and was too frightened to return to his home.  The cause of the attack is not stated.  In the absence of an effective police force violence was common.

This rather lengthy account of the Griffith family of Wichenor, which mentions Lampeter in Cardiganshire, is from Archaeologia Cambrensis, January 1879, pp. 71-72.  I have not investigated a possible link of the Griffiths to Princes of South Wales.  The reference “(Shaw says daughter of Sir Walter Blount in his History of Staffordshire.)” is to The history and antiquities of Staffordshire by the Rev. Stebbing Shaw, pub. in 2 volumes (1798, 1801).  (Click on pages to enlarge.)

This, from Knights of Edward I Volume 4, p. 259, amplifies what is said above regarding Sir Philip de Somerville:

An Inquisitions Post Mortem taken at Bolyngbrok in Lincolnshire dated 3 April, 11 Edward III, for Roger de Somervill or de Somervyle, states that his next heir is Philip de Somervyle, aged 40 years and more, brother of Roger.

Below: The descent of Sir John Griffith, father of Sir Walter Griffith and Rhys (Richard) Griffith, from the Somervilles to the Griffiths, is shown in this lawsuit. The Griffith family were major land owners.  The date of this lawsuit—1440—was yet to presage the contest of Lancaster and York.

(Wrottesley, 1905, pp. 369-370.)

The Griffiths of Wichenor and Burton Agnes, like many Medieval gentry families, can confound even experienced genealogists.  Gen. No. 4 of the line above given, Rhys (Richard) Griffith, was the brother of Walter Griffith (d. 9 Aug 1481), as Peter Sutton notes in a lengthy GEN-MEDIEVAL-L Archives post dated 29 Oct 2005 entitled “The 3 Walter Griffiths of Burton Agnes, East Riding of Yorkshire.”  Sutton lists 3 Walter Griffiths (A), (B), and (C).  The problem is the 3 Walters are confused.  Walters (A) and (B) are in fact the same person: this Walter m. 1st Jane Neville, by whom he had no surviving children; m. 2nd Agnes Constable, by whom he produced his heir, another Walter Griffith (C).  Agnes (Constable) Griffith took as her 2nd husband Gervase Clifton.

The proof that Walter Griffith who m. Jane Neville and Walter Griffith who m. Agnes Constable are the same individual is in this old chart I received from the Society of Antiquaries of London.  (Click on image to enlarge.)

Under the heading “This stately tombe” we find Sir Walter Griffith interred with his first wife, Jane Neville.  The girl and boy flanking Jane and Walter are their daughter and son who died young.  To the right of the tomb in the circles are Walter’s parents Sir John Griffith and Katherine Tyrwhitt.  From them is a line down to “F,” where Sir Walter Griffith is shown with his first wife Jane Neville to his left, and his second wife Agnes Constable to his right.  The legend in Walter’s circle states he died in 1481.  Walter chose to be buried with his first wife, a common practice. 

The identity of Jane Neville (who was also called “Joan”) is confusing:  She was the daughter of Sir Ralph Neville, son of Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmorland by the earl’s 1st wife Margaret Stafford; and Mary Ferrers, daughter of Robert Ferrers, first husband of Joan Beaufort, alleged illegitimate daughter of John of Gaunt.  Jane Neville’s father Sir Ralph Neville is sometimes incorrectly termed the 2nd Earl of Westmorland.  After the  death of Margaret Stafford, Joan Beaufort became the 2nd wife of Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmorland.  [For Ferrers see The Complete Peerage Volume II, p. 232 IV Elizabeth Baroness le Botiller and footnote (d), and p. 233 footnote (a).]

“This stately tombe” is still in existence in St. Martin’s church at Burton Agnes, East Riding of Yorkshire.

The will of Sir Walter Griffith I of Burton-Agnes was dated 8 Jul 1481 and probated at York.  The will is in latin.  The 8th line of this text mentions items stored at Whichnore.  Lines 23 and 24 mention “Ricardo Griffith, fratri meo,” which means “my brother.”  There’s no doubt as to the identity of these people.

[Surtees (1865), pp. 269-270.]

It should be noted Douglas Richardson has published the correct account of this Sir Walter Griffith.

At Wichenor in Staffordshire was a strange marriage custom, dating to the reign of King Edward III, and perhaps followed by Ann Blount and Thomas Griffith, in which this oath was sworn on a side of bacon: 

“Hear ye, Sir Philip de Somerville, Lord of Wichenour, maintainer and giver of this Bacon, that I [husband], since I wedded my wife, and since I had her in my keeping, and at my will by a year and a day after our marriage, I would not have changed for none other, fairer nor fouler; richer nor poorer; nor for none other descended of greater lineage; sleeping nor waking at no time; and if the said wife were single and I were single I would take her to be my wife before all the women of the world, of what conditions soever they be, good or evil, as help me God and his saints, and this flesh and all flesh.”

The origin of this custom is quite confused, some suggesting it was entailed in a charter from John of Gaunt.  Another account stated the custom was also a physical ordeal and only three couples ever walked off with the bacon.  However, it was in connection with my research of this obscure practice that I solved the odd mystery of the name of a Mozarab inhabitant of 12th century Toledo, Spain, Abdul Aziz bin Lampader (see below).

(Neo-Moorish architecture:  Castello di Sammezzano, Tuscany, Italy.)

In 712 a Berber army under Arab command defeated the Visigothic King Roderic of Spain and within a few years wrested control of the Iberian peninsula.  The Arab elite regarded the Berbers as inferior: “Berber” meant “barbarian.”  The Berbers rebelled against their Arab leaders in North Africa in 739 and in 740 the rebellion spread to al-Andalus (Islamic controlled Spanish territory). 

Though the Moors remained for centuries masters of a large part of Spain, getting a straight answer as to their ethnic composition was difficult.  “Moor” is slang for “Moroccan.”  The Moors ranged from fair skinned blonde to dark skinned Ethiopian.  The best description I can assemble is that they were initially (mostly) Berber tribesmen from Algeria and Morocco with some Arab component, but during the period of their domination assimilated black Africans from Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia, most of whom were soldiers and slaves. 

(Garima Gospels, Ethiopia, ca. 4th to 7th century.  Despite its Christian heritage, Ethiopia was notorious for its slave trade.)

Slave merchants took Ethiopians by caravan to lucrative slave markets like Tangier in Morocco and Tunis in Tunisia.  Ethiopia also furnished soldiers.  Tangier was a trans-shipping point for slaves.  At its shortest extent, Tangier is only about 20 miles from Spain across the Straits of Gibraltar.  Even if slaves were shipped farther up Spain’s east coast, it’s a sea journey of about 100 miles.  My hypothesis is that most soldiers and slaves from Ethiopia who entered service under the Moors converted to Islam, while Ethiopian slaves purchased by Christians were assimilated into communities known as Mozarabs (see below).  Muslims were adamantly opposed to Muslims becoming Christians.  Assimilating Christian Ethiopian slaves would not have drawn the ire of Moorish authorities. This explains why Moors and Mozarabs shared African ancestry.   The British journal The Tatler for 14 Nov 1710, No. 250,  contains the sentence:  “The first place of the bench I give to an old Tangerine captain with a wooden leg.”  This indicates the word “Tangerine” was applied to natives of  Tangier, but this usage probably came after the end of Moorish occupation of Spain.

So the Moors are a mixed race people, the individuals of which could vary in appearance.  They were not a distinct race of their own, but a shared culture.  The Moors were sometimes called “Arabs” in the generic sense, as “Muslims,” in the same way the term “Saracen” came to be applied to Islamic peoples during the Crusades.

(Astrolabe made at Toledo in 1068.)

Historian Richard Fletcher (2006) p. 10, wrote:

“The language of common speech in al-Andalus, for Christians and Jews as well as Muslims, was Arabic; but to speak as some have done of ‘Arabic’ Spain is to give the impression that the land had been colonised by the Arabs, whereas the number of Arabs who settled there was very small.  ‘Moorish’ Spain does at least have the merit of reminding us that the bulk of the invaders and settlers were Moors, i.e., Berbers from northwest Africa.  But we shall need to bear in mind that they overlay a population of mixed descent—Hispano-Romans, Basques, Sueves, Visigoths, Jews and others.”

The Moorish scholar Abu Muhammad Ali ibn Sa id ibn Hazm (994–1064), son of Ahmad, advisor to the Umayyad Caliph Hisham II, described the Moors:

“All the Caliphs of the Banu Marwan (God have mercy on their souls!), and especially the sons of al-Nasir, were without variation or exception disposed by nature to prefer blondes.  I have myself seen them, and known others who had seen their forebears, from the days of al-Nasir’s reign down to the present day; every one of them has been fair-haired, taking after their mothers, so that this has become a hereditary trait with them; all but Sulaiman al-Zafir (God have mercy on him!), whom I remember to have had black ringlets and a black beard.  As for al-Nasir and al-Hakam al-Mustansir (may God be pleased with them!), I have been informed by my late father, the vizier, as well as by others, that both of them were blond and blue-eyed.  The same is true of Hisham al-Mu’aiyad, Muhammad al-Mahdi, and Abd al-Rahman al-Murtada (may God be merciful to them all!); I saw them myself many times, and had the honour of being received by them, and I remarked that they all had fair hair and blue eyes.”

The above passage is in ibn Hazm’s The Ring of the Dove, in the chapter “Of Falling In Love With A Quality And Thereafter Not Approving Any Other Different” [Arthur John Arberry (1905–1969), trans.; Fellow Pembroke College, Cambridge].  ibn Hazm, as the son of a highly placed court official, is impeccable evidence, drawing upon his own observation, or the personal observation of his “late father, the vizier, as well as by others….”  Few in the West outside of academia are familiar with ibn Hazm, but he is a very important source for this period.

Note ibn Hazm says the “blonde” trait of these caliphs was from “taking after their mothers” and became hereditary through them.  Obviously the Moors had taken women indigenous to the area as wives or concubines, but this practice was not universal, as in the case of Sulaiman al-Zafir.  Sulaiman’s “black ringlets” refer not to jewellery, but to his naturally curled hair.  So some Moors were engaged in what can only be termed “selective breeding,” but why?  Why did not Sulaiman al-Zafir? 

Perhaps Sulaiman al-Zafir found all the respect he needed at the point of his sword, although many he put to the sword could not defend themselves:

“During this period the Berbers rampaged uncontrollably over the southeastern parts of Spain, living off the land and extorting protection money from the cities, doing untold damage by their depredations.  Meanwhile, the situation of the Cordobans became very wretched.  The city was  crowded with refugees from the surrounding countryside. A wet spring in 1011 brought serious flooding of the Guadalquivir.  An outbreak of plague occurred.  The government was so hard up that it was driven to the expedient of selling off some of al-Hakem’s splendid library.  In May 1013 Cordoba surrendered.  Sulayman’s Berber followers, who had already wrecked the palace at Madinat az-Zahra, sacked and plundered the city.  What remained of the caliphal library was dispersed.  Enormous numbers of the citizens were massacred. The great scholar-to-be, Ibn Hazm, then aged about nineteen, witnessed the slaughter and later named over sixty distinguished scholars who met their deaths.  One of them, the biographer Ibn al-Faradi, lay unburied where he had been cut down for three days.  The caliph Hisham II disappears from view, presumed murdered.”  So ibn Hazm had personal knowledge of Sulaiman-al Zafir, who presided as caliph in Cordoba until 1016, when one of his generals deposed and executed him.  Fletcher (2006), pp. 80–81.

“Selective breeding” among elites was hardly new with the Moors.  The most extreme example are the Ptolemaic pharaohs of Egypt, who married their own sisters because no other women were fit for a king.  The wives of two of the sons of King Edward III of England—John of Gaunt and Edmund of Langley—were cousins of Gaunt and Langley, and both were daughters of Pedro I.  It all smacks of the Nazi attempt to create a super-race, but the caliphs were not engaged in a program of racial extermination.  ibn Hazm says “all but Sulaiman al-Zafir” did this; thus it’s reasonable to conclude the average Moor resembled Sulaiman al-Zafir.  Or is it?

An ancient mystery: is ibn Hazm’s tale of the blonde caliph true?

“‘Abd al-Rahman III’s father Muhammad was born of the union between the amir ‘Abd Allah [d. 912] and the Christian princess Onneca or Iniga, the daughter of a king of Navarre who had been sent to Cordoba as a hostage in the 860s.  ‘Abd al-Rahman himself was the child of a union between his father Muhammad and a slave-concubine, a Christian captive possibly from the same Pyrenean region, named Muzna (perhaps originally Maria?).  In his immediate ancestry, therefore, the new ruler was three-quarters Spanish, or perhaps more accurately Hispano-Basque, and only one-quarter Arab.  He had blue eyes, a light skin and reddish hair.  We are told that he used to dye his hair black to make himself look more like an Arab.  This was only one of several ways in which ‘Abd al-Rahman was skilled at the business of what today we would call projecting an image of himself.”  Fletcher (2006), p. 53.

The king of Navarre for this period is Garcia Iniguez (r. 851–882).  Due to military instability in the region the story of ‘Abd Allah receiving a hostage from a king of Navarre is plausible.  She may have been illegitimate.  Regardless of her actual paternity, and the uncertainty of her name, the notion she would ever have been set free by ‘Abd Allah to marry another is impossible.

Thus, the tale is true; only in this instance the caliph had reddish hair—but there were many women should he desire his son to be blonde.  What lay behind this practice?  The motive appears to be a desire to copy their white European counterparts, rather than a means to separate elites from their subjects.  We tend to think of Moorish Spain as insular, but there was constant contact with Christian states, in matters of trade, diplomacy, and warfare.

What more can we say of Sulaiman al-Zafir?  As  Fletcher (2006), p. 80 remarks:  “The Berber generals chose another descendant of ‘Abd al-Rahman III, Sulayman, as a rival caliph.  Sulayman appealed for military aid to the count of Castile, Sancho Garcia, who responded positively.  The two men, Christian and Muslim, joined forces, marched on Cordoba and defeated Muhammad II in November 1109.  Sulayman was proclaimed caliph.”   This initial usurpation lasted until May 1010 when another combination of Christian and Muslim allies ousted Sulaiman. 

We may therefore conclude that even Sulaiman al-Zafir’s appearance, with his black beard and ringlets, was to some extent the result of “selective breeding,” and the Berbers who elevated him were basically black.  This resemblance to his Berber troops may have helped in winning them over, but as we have seen, it ended badly for him.  ‘Abd al-Rahman III would have kept a well-stocked harem, and it appears Sulaiman al-Zafir’s ancestry was not of Hispano-Basque women.

My theory is that ‘Abd al-Rahman III’s successors ran through these Hispano-Basque slave-concubines, but for political purposes he also had children by dark-skinned women, and Sulaiman al-Zafir was a descendant of one of those unions.  My intent here is to reconcile the historical facts.  As seen above, al-Rahman III felt he could not alienate his subjects by affecting a completely “white-European” appearance, so he dyed his hair black.  For the chronology so essential to genealogists I should mention ‘Abd al-Rahman III succeeded his grandfather ‘Abd Allah in 912 and reigned until his death in 961.  Fletcher (2006), p. 53.  Sulaiman al-Zafir was a grandson or great-grandson of ‘Abd al-Rahman III.

ibn Hazm died a mere 21 years before Alfonso VI overwhelmed Toledo.  This is as contemporary a description of the Moors as we are likely to find.

The larger caliphates disintegrated:

‘[S]tatelets emerged which were run by civil administrators who had achieved prominence under the regime of Almanzor and his son.  These men were often technically slaves, or freedmen, and sometimes not of peninsular origin but drawn from the vast hordes of slaves imported into al-Andalus in the tenth century.”  Slaves could be of disparate ethnic backgrounds, in civil or military service, and sometimes emerged as rulers.  Fletcher (2006), pp. 83–84.

 

[Illustration: “Chess Problem No. 25 Five Moors, one playing harp.”  Harp music set the mood for this most competitive of board games.  From the Libro de los Juegos (Book of Games) of Alfonso X, king of Castile, Leon, and Galicia (1221–1284).  King Edward I of England married as his first queen Eleanor of Castile, half-sister of Alfonso X.  Alfonso X had the text translated from Arabic into Castlilian and added illustrations, the book being completed in 1283. During the Middle Ages, wealthy patrons commissioned illuminated manuscripts like the Book of Games.  Undoubtedly the king was personally familiar with the physical appearance of a Moor as they continued to rule parts of Spain until 1492, so the illustration was taken from life.  Note that on the left the servant holding a flask and dish has somewhat lighter skin than the others.  From this we can deduce that to a greater or lesser degree the individual Moor possessed black ancestry.]

[The surrender of Granada, the last Moorish outpost in the Iberian peninsula, in January 1492, by Francisco Pradilla Ortiz (1848–1921).  Upon ejecting the Moors from Granada, Ferdinand and Isabella ruled a united Spain.  Click on image to enlarge.]

[Sir Peter Paul Rubens (1577–1640), “Four studies of the head of a Moore.” In the collection of Musees Royaux des Beaux Arts, Musee Old Masters Museum (inv. 3176), Brussels, Belgium.]

[Alfonso VI (1040–1109), king of Castile and Leon.]

The ruler of Toledo, Al-Qadir, was a hated puppet installed by Alfonso VI.  Alfonso VI had been bleeding Toledo dry with demands for tribute.  “Toledo also contained large communities of Jews and Mozarabic Christians.  It is inaccurate to regard the Christians as some sort of ‘fifth column’ working for Alfonso VI.  Nevertheless it was bound to have been the case that to be ruled by a Christian was perceived as preferable to be being ruled by a Muslim.  As for the Jews of Toledo, they were probably encouraged to look favourably upon the Christian king by an episode that occurred in 1082.  Alfonso had sent a Jewish ambassador to Seville to collect the tribute.  A dispute took place: the Castilian delegation complained the tribute was being paid in debased coin and accompanied their complaint with insults.  [The ruler] Al-Mu’tamid had the Jewish ambassador crucified.  Alfonso VI was livid with rage and mounted a punitive raid to avenge his envoy’s death.”  Fletcher (1990), p. 141.

Netanyahu (2001), pp. 255–257 & 296–297 provides essential background to the story of Toledo and the Jewish community: seeing for themselves favorable conditions under the lenient Alfonso VI, rather than leave the city, Jews “chose to move to it in growing numbers.  Soon Toledo gave signs of becoming the most important center of Spanish Jewry.”  However, their position soon became tenuous; in Aug 1109, following the death of Alfonso VI, the townspeople fell upon the Jews, killing many and forcing more to convert. 

Thus, after the liberation of Toledo, the area grew as a center of Jewish learning, but many Jews converted due to political pressure.  It would be very surprising if Sancha de Ayala, who was born centuries after the expulsion of the Moors, had no Jewish ancestry.

Above: Stained glass of Coat of Arms of Castile and Leon, Alcazar (Castle) at Segovia, Spain, the arms being a “castle” for Castile and a “lion” for Leon.  Principal residence of Alfonso VIII, king of Castile and Toledo, and his queen Eleanor, daughter of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine.  On 16 Jul 1212, Alfonso VIII and a coalition of Christian forces crushed the Muslim Almohads at the Battle of Navas de Tolosa in Southern Spain.  Some knights disagreed with Alfonso VIII’s lenient treatment of defeated Jews and Muslims from earlier battles.  When the Christian forces had previously gathered at Toledo there had been assaults and murders of Jews in the Jewish quarter.

Here’s a mega–pill:  Blanche of Castile (1188–1252), daughter of Alfonso VIII and Eleanor of England.  Blanche became Queen of France as consort to Louis VIII, king of France.  Her hovering suffocating supervision of her son, the future King Louis IX of France, drilled into his brain-pan the austerity and prudery for which he was known.  In 1243 in Paris, at the urging of Pope Gregory IX, Louis IX burned manuscript copies of the Jewish Talmud.  The incident was part of a wave of anti-Semitism that swept Europe in the 13th century.  Fortunately Pope Innocent IV rescinded the edict against the Talmud.  (Click to enlarge.)

King Louis IX indulged in self-scourging (flagellation), believing that inflicting pain upon himself helped atone for his exaggerated sense of sin.  Overwrought individuals like Louis IX had difficulty placing an appropriate value on “natural” and “supernatural.”  Their lives were a religious drama supported by the church.  While Louis’ behavior was excessive, in the Medieval era morbidly intense religious devotion was common.  Flagellation is still occasionally employed today—Pope John Paul II was a devotee of flagellation, a fact that emerged during testimony for his canonization.  According to published reports, Pope Francis is a flagellant.  Elements within the Catholic church accuse opponents of flagellation as having lost the sense of the enormity of sin: for them, when you sin, you’re rejecting Christ, and must be reconciled.  From this we can get a glimpse of the mentality of Medieval Catholics.

Below: King Louis IX also allowed himself to be whipped in penance.

This account, written by John Lord Joinville, a friend of Louis IX, demonstrates the tensions between Church, State, and Jews in the Medieval epoch.  (Click on image to enlarge.)

The knight chose to frame his question by referencing the Virgin Mary.  A philosopher might refute this Marian theology as follows: Since God is the Prime Mover, he is causeless and there is nothing about him which is caused; therefore, there is nothing which can be caused to appear, for there is nothing to initiate a chain of causation; and God’s interaction with humanity is solely by the grace and will of God, and not any external biological or formulaic mechanism.  Thus Mary can’t possibly be the Mother of God as her pregnancy couldn’t cause God to appear; for if so she would be an anterior cause.  This argument would get you burned at the stake.

Sancha’s claim to aristocracy came through her mother Ines de Ayala, whose family was more important than that of her father Diego Gomez.  Sancha’s uncle Pero Lopez de Ayala (1332–1407), for many years a player in Castilian politics, became Grand Chancellor of The Realm of Castile under K; for she wouling Henry III of Castile.  Ines de Ayala was also distantly related by blood to Roman Catholic Cardinal Pedro Gomez Barroso (d. 1348).

(Tomb effigy of Pero Lopez de Ayala in the Monastery of Quejana, near Bilbao, Spain.  In addition to holding high political office, he was also a renowned poet.)

Todd Farmerie, in a thread on “soc.genealogy.medieval,” dated 24 Jul 2007, entitled “Converso ancestors of Sancha de Ayala” said:

So what made Farmerie apoplectic?  The assertion that some of Sancha de Ayala’s ancestors were converted Jews—or “conversos.”  As Nathaniel Lane Taylor points out, the term “converso” is properly applied only to Jews who converted to Catholicism during the Spanish Inquisition.  But in actual practice, “converso” is often applied in a broader sense to Jews who converted at any point in the Medieval period.  And during the 15th century it could apply to Moorish converts as well.

My response to Farmerie is that your ancestors do not lose their identity over time.  If you have a Jew or African in your pedigree, THEY are a Jew and African forever, regardless of the era in which they lived.  Their contribution to YOU as an organism varies over time, but you’re the sum of all of your forebears.  I was unfamiliar with the phrase “turning something on its head.”  Farmarie is saying: “Even if there is a Jew somewhere in the pedigree, after 25 generations it’s a misinterpretation of the pure blood standard to say such a person is a Jew.”  So if the Jew is a remote ancestor, the Jewish genetic contribution to your pedigree is diluted to the point that it doesn’t matter.  That’s not genealogy.

The “pure blood standard” was called “limpieza de sangre,” and was first introduced into Spain in 1414 by the archbishop of Seville, in connection with the foundation of the Colegio de San Bartolome of Salamanca.  No one with any Jewish ancestor, regardless of how remote, could be admitted to the college.  Jewish blood was “tainted.” 

The practical application of the doctrine was in the event political.  Because so many people in Medieval Spain, including the very prominent, did have Jewish ancestors, the application of the “purity of blood” standard depended partly upon who you were.  If you were powerful (meaning you could marshal military force), your background wasn’t scrutinized as closely as someone further down the food chain. 

The doctrine was based upon the concept that though everyone was equal in Christ, Jews were held to be biologically “inferior.”  Thus was established institutionalized racism with various equations of who could do what with who: in some instances one could not have had a Jew in the family for 100 years, and in others, for 4 generations.  Dispensations could be granted. The more lenient definitions of “pure blood” prevailed, and that is what Farmarie appears to be advocating.  Students of history will recognize these regulations as precursors to the infamous Nuremberg Laws of Nazi Germany.  The Nuremberg Laws also extended to blacks and gypsies.

Farmerie has some support from across the pond. In an article in “The Guardian” dated 11 Mar 2009, British celebrity biographer Hugo Vickers was asked for his reaction to reports that King George III’s consort Queen Charlotte had black ancestry:

[Would] our royal family be threatened if it were shown they had African forebears? “I don’t think so at all. There would be no shame attached to it all,” says the royal historian Hugo Vickers. “The theory does not impress me, but even if it were true, the whole thing would have been so diluted by this stage that it couldn’t matter less to our royal family. It certainly wouldn’t show that they are significantly black.”

Stiff upper lip and carry on.

In the same thread, Taylor says: “Sancha de Ayala’s father’s ancestors in Toledo were a mixed bag of Toledan families. Some were most likely Mozarabic families—Christians who had been living under Muslim rule before the annexation of Toledo by Alfonso VI.  An example is Abdul Aziz bin Lampader, surely Sancha’s ancestor, who was alcalde [assistant judge] of the city in 1125.  There is a possibility that some of these families may have been Jewish…. The bottom line is that it is conventional to say all the apparently native urban [Toledo] families who bore Muslim names in the time of Alfonso VI [1040–1109] were Mozarabic Christians, but some of them may have been Jews. But in this early era (11th–early 12th c) there was no organized persecution or forced conversion….”  The actual identity of Mozarabs is discussed elsewhere; but Dr. Taylor’s last remark is wrong: anti-Jewish massacres in Toledo in Aug 1109, almost immediately following the death of Alfonso VI, brought many Jews to convert.

The position of Jews under the Cordoban caliphate had been favorable:

“Ibn Shaprut was a figure of eminence in the international Jewish community at large.  He was the patron of Jewish-Andalusi poets such as Dunash Ha-Levi, the benefactor of the Talmudic academies of Mesopotamia, the author of a letter to the ruler of the ‘Thirteenth Tribe,” the Jewish Khazars of south Russia.  He occupied an important position in al-Andalus as a trusted advisor as well as doctor to the caliph.  For his services he seems to have been rewarded with some lucrative sinecure from the tolls and customs paid by merchants.  Hasday ibn Shaprut is a remarkable testimony to the cosmopolitan character of the court of al-Andalus under ‘Abd al-Rahman III, and to the heights to which Jews could rise in service to it.”  Fletcher (2006), p. 70.

“It is difficult to know what the day-to-day relations of Christians and Muslims may have been like in the cities of al-Andalus.  They lived side by side.  In some cities the Mozarabs inhabited distinct Christian quarters of the town, in others they seem to have lived intermingled with their Muslim neighbors.”  Fletcher (2006), p. 94.

In the discussion of Abdul Aziz bin Lampader that follows, I’m going to rely on Hitchcock (2008)—this area of investigation was his specialty.  Comments in italics mine.

First, what was a “Mozarab”?  It means: “‘to make oneself similar to the Arabs,’ … ‘having assimilated Arabic customs’, or, most specifically designated someone who had the appearance of an Arab, was indistinguishable from Arabs, and would not stand out in a crowd of Arabs.” (p. ix)  “Mozarab” doesn’t just signify a Christian living under Muslim rule.  As Hitchcock states in his afterword, Mozarab “cannot, in my view, be a word employed to signify Christians who lived in al-Andalus,” which of course is at complete variance with the above comment by Nathaniel L. Taylor, but Taylor admits the possibility that “some of these families may have been Jewish.”

So the key here is primarily appearance and outward conformity, although in religion the Mozarab was mainly Christian and occasionally Jewish.  The term “Mozarab” was not uniformly applied as to religion, but does mean non-Muslim and could be pejorative.  The Moors and Mozarabs were related peoples, sharing a common black ancestry.  Mozarabs looked like Arabs but weren’t “real” Arabs because they weren’t Muslim—but if they didn’t rock the boat, were tolerated.

Above: Mozarabs in a mid-10th century Christian religious text.  A blue cross is in the center.  Note the vertical beam of the cross doesn’t extend upward from the horizontal beam.  The illustration depicts a Mozarab in the role of John of the Apocalypse measuring the temple with a measuring rod given to him by angels (Revelations 11:1–3).  The Mozarabs have brown skin and all of their hair outside of their caps is black, indicating black ancestry. Hitchcock 2008 (jacket).

“In Toledo after 1085 AD, and the surrounding areas for a further century and a half, ‘Mozarab’ was an internally applied term.  Christians used it to define other, Arabicized, Christians, and amongst the communities of the latter were those who had ‘Mozarab’ or a recognizable form of the word, as a surname.’  (p. 76)  These were people who were in Toledo before Alfonso VI took it; a community he recognized as an asset in stabilizing his regime.

“In the first generation after the conquest of Toledo, there is a majority of names entirely in Arabic (59 per cent), whilst in the twenty-year period 1110–1130, this figure has reduced to 45 per cent.  Between 1150 and 1170, it has dropped to 5 per cent.  During the same period (1130–1170), hybrid names, of the type Abi al-Hasan b. Mika il, retain their popularity, representing over 40 percent of the instances….  By 1118, and throughout the following two centuries, being Mozarab meant, first and foremost, being Arabicized members of a Castilian community.”  (pp. 86–87)  In this example “Mika il” is the hybrid portion of the name.

That Mozarabs in Toledo were recognized as a separate community is indicated in a fuero (charter) cited by Netanyahu (2001), p. 1221, granted in 1101 to the Mozarabs by Alfonso VI, in which they were given special status, which did not extend to the killing or wounding of a Jew or Moor.

Hitchcock continues: “It would be fair to say that the Mozarabs flourished in the city of Toledo in the twelfth century.  They still had their own mayor in 1178, Melendo Lampader, who died in 1181, and relations with the Castlian community in the city seemed positive.  This same Melendo married a daughter of the Castilian alcaide, and the line was perpetuated well into the thirteenth century.  The maintenance of two separate mayors, responsible for their own communities, one hundred years after the capture of the city by Alfonso VI, is an indication of the success of this king’s initial policies.  Arabophone Christian communities, however they came into existence, could prosper independently within Christian territories.”  (p. 96)  The term “Arabophone” means the individual’s native language was Arabic.  Note that Hitchcock uses the phrase “Arabophone Christian communities, however they came into existence….”  So Melendo Lampader was himself recorded as a Mozarab.  As of 1178, the Lampader family had not been assimilated, but about the mid-13th century it was granted a coat of arms.

Abdul Aziz bin Lampader was an Arabicized Christian who in appearance resembled his Muslim counterpart—the Moors.  As I discuss above, what made an individual a Moor cannot be unequivocally stated, but by general agreement it was a person of mixed race, incorporating mainly Berber and African elements.  The bin Lampader family was a mixture of Visigothic and black African ancestry sharing the Christian religion.  Ethiopia had converted to Christianity in the 4th century.  Slaves and soldiers entering Moorish Spain brought their religion with them.  However, it would have been far more common (and safer) for a Christian to convert to Islam than a Muslim become a Christian.

Mozarab families resembled their Muslim neighbors because they both had black ancestry, from the same section of Africa.

(A view of Toledo, which barely looks more modernized than it did in the day of Sancha de Ayala.  Toledo had been the capital city of Visigothic Spain in the 6th and 7th centuries.  Click on image to enlarge.)

“Abdul Aziz” is a Muslim name still in use today: “Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud” was the name of the late king of Saudi Arabia, which means “Abdullah son of Abdul Aziz of the family Saud.”

One researcher claimed Abdul Aziz bin Lampader was actually Abdelacis ben Lampader, suggesting a Jewish form.  In Muslim use  “Abdul Aziz bin Lampader” means “Abdul Aziz son of Lampader” without a family name appended, but this was in an early age. I couldn’t locate “Lampader” anywhere in lists of Hebrew names, or in Hebrew dictionaries, or in Latin, or in Spanish, that would give a clue to the name the family held under the Moorish regime.  It may have been quasi-official.  A corollary is the English family of Despenser, whose name was derived from “Dispensator”—they had been stewards of the Earls of Chester or the Lacy family, Constables of Chester.  Abdul Aziz and his son Melendo held public office in Toledo.  Apparently this family was resident in Toledo when it capitulated to Alfonso VI, and the king took advantage of their continued service.

According to Fletcher (1990), p. 60: “Settlers also came [to Castile] from the South, Mozarabic Christians who left al-Andalus [Muslim controlled Spain] to live among their fellow Christians in the north.  They can be recognized by their Arabised names which evidently caused difficulties for Castilian scribes and produced such bizarre formations as the Abolgomar who lived near Cardena about the year 900 and the Abogaleb who was a monk at Berlangas in about 950.”

Having considered these possibilities and all but abandoning the search, the solution to the meaning of “Lampader” came from Wales: in Cardiganshire there is an ancient town called Lampeter, which means “St. Peter.”  This area was associated with Sir Rhys ap Griffith, grandfather of Thomas Griffith (see above), who married Joan de Somerville, heiress of Wichenor.  We may never know the name by which Abdul Aziz was known to the Moorish authorities, but his new name was entered by Castilian officials, probably as Alfonso VI tightened his grip on Toledo.  It reminds one of the creative work by the clerks at Ellis Island.  When Abdul Aziz presented himself, his actual name was probably replaced with the name “Lampader,” which meant “St. Peter;” and thus we have Abdul Aziz “son of St. Peter,” a “son” in the spiritual sense, like a “disciple” or “servant” of St. Peter.  This interpretation is validated by the third word of the initial name given in the Diego Gomez chart:  “Melendo aben Lampadero.”  We may substitute “Lampedro” for “Lampadero;”  “Pedro” being Spanish for “Peter.”  This signifies the Lampader family was definitely Christian, as were most Mozarabs.

(Click on image to enlarge.)

The entire article on Lampeter may be seen at:

http://www.british-history.ac.uk/topographical-dict/wales/pp459-473

There are many Lampeter(s), this one from Theophilus Jones’s A History of the County of Brecknock, Vol. II, Part II.

(Church of St. Peter, Painscastle.)

And even a Lampeter in Pennsylvania (Zip Code 17537), named after Lampeter in Wales, undoubtedly the result of Welsh settlement in the area.

This interpretation is completely vindicated by the following items from Archaeologia Cambrensis of October 1878, p. 293, in an article “Notes On Records Relating To Lampeter And Cardiganshire”, which clearly demonstrate that “Lampeter” and “Lampader” are the same:

The documents referenced here are entries in a Charter Roll dating to 1284 and in a Patent Roll dating to 1330.  These are official government documents.  The Charter Roll of King Edward I authorizes Rhys ap Meredith to host a market at his manor of Lampeter every Thursday of the week, a lucrative privilege.  The king also granted Rhys ap Meredith the right to hold a fair from October 8 to October 10.  Patent Rolls were rolls of parchment in which letters written in the name of the king were recorded, in this instance King Edward III.  The phrase “the town of ‘Lampader calaponte Stevene,’ in South Wales” means “the town of St. Peter at the castle of Stephen’s bridge in South Wales,” a typical English way of describing a place.  “Pont” is Latin for “bridge.”  One tradition states the castle had been erected by King Stephen, probably during his interminable civil war with the Empress Matilda, mother of King Henry II of England; but as seen below, Pryce and Insley (2005) suggest otherwise.  The castle was a landmark, destroyed later in the 12th century, but ruins remained, and that’s how the town was known.

As further proof that the names “Lampeter” and “Lampader” were interchangeable, Bridgeman (1876) pp. 162–163 provides this passage which references King Edward I in the year 1280.  A castle at Lampader was in use during the king’s military operations in Wales.  It was probably a crude affair, not to be confused with the gigantic structures of his reign.

In England the “mark” was not a coin, but a monetary convention equal to about 2/3 of a pound.

Pryce and Insley (2005) pp. 165–166 have this to say about “Lampeter” in discussing a charter relating to Totnes Priory:

“For a full discussion of this charter see Crouch, ‘Earliest original charter’, which locates the church of St Peter de Mabonio at Lampeter, cmt. Mebwynion.  Cadell captured the castle of Lampeter in 1146, but appears to have been incapacitated as ruler of Deheubarth after he was badly beaten by Norman knights near Tenby in 1151.  As Crouch argues, the ‘house’ of Cadell may well have been Lampeter castle.  The charter reveals that Totnes Priory had already held the church at Lampeter during the reign of Henry I (1100-35), and Crouch plausibly suggests that the original grantor was Stephen, constable of Cardigan.”

Stephen, Constable of Cardigan, m. (her 2nd) Nest, daughter of Rhys ap Tewdwr, last king of South Wales.

According to Anglican church sources, there are written mentions of churches using Llanbedr, “Bedr” being Welsh for “Peter,” dating to the mid-11th century, and obviously the usage is much earlier.

Names incorporating a religious motif were in use at this time:  the name of  Gospatric I, Earl of Northumberland and Dunbar (d. ca. 1074/5)  meant “servant of Patrick.”

The line connects to Sancha de Ayala through her father Diego Gomez through Suarez.

[Shakespeare’s immortal Moor Othello, portrayed by American/British actor Ira Aldridge (1807–1867).  In 1833 Aldridge became the first black actor to play Othello on the London stage.  Othello is one of Shakespeare’s greatest roles which has inspired both black and white actors—like Laurence Fishburne and Laurence Olivier. Olivier played the role in black makeup.  Today we conceive of the Moors as black, and that was true in most cases.  The character Othello, if played as historically accurate, would be one of the Berber generals mentioned in connection with Sulaiman al-Zafir.  As ibn Hazm remarked, the mixed racial composition of the Moors covered a wider spectrum.  That challenges our assumptions about race: what does “race” really mean?]

Another character who weaves in and out of this tale is Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, or El Cid (ca. 1043–1099).  Although Spain’s National Hero, El Cid was a gun-for-hire or mercenary, with his own private army, fighting for Christians or Muslims as the fortunes of war dictated.  One of his clients was Alfonso VI, King of Castile and Leon.  El Cid’s passion was an independent principality in Valencia, which became reality, if only for awhile.  After  his death, his widow Ximena ruled until 1102, when she was advised by Alfonso VI that Valencia was indefensible.  The city was abandoned and burned to the ground.  The Arabic writer Ibn Bassam said of El Cid: “this man, the scourge of his time, by his appetite for glory, by the prudent steadfastness of his character, and by his heroic bravery, was one of the miracles of God.”  Fletcher (1990) p. 185.

Blanche of Artois, a descendant of El Cid’s daughter Christina, seems to have been the uterine crossroads of Medieval Europe.  Blanche married Edmund “Crouchback,” Earl of Lancaster and Leicester, bringing El Cid’s bloodline to England.

(Original tomb of El Cid and his wife Ximena at the monastery of San Pedro de Cardena.  El Cid’s horse Babieca was buried in the graveyard.  Babieca stayed put, but El Cid wandered around until finally re-interred at the Catedral de Santa Maria de Burgos.  Fletcher (1990), p. 123 says El Cid and Ximena were married in the summer of 1074 or 1075, and certainly by May 1076.  The parentage of El Cid and Ximena is disputed, although Ximena was of a noble Asturian family.)

[1864 painting by Marcos Giraldez de Acosta depicting Alfonso VI, king of Castile and Leon (in red cape) swearing on the bible that he had no complicity in the murder of his brother Sancho II.  Alfonso VI is looking at El Cid.  Sancho II was murdered, allegedly by a sword-thrust to the back, at Zamora on 6 Oct 1072.  If the tale is true, the unhappy Sancho II could not have known his killer.  Suspicion of responsibility for the murder must fall on Sancho II’s sister Urraca, whose city he was besieging, but the principal beneficiary was Alfonso VI.  At the time El Cid was employed by Sancho II, but was not implicated in the murder.  Paintings such as this one, made centuries after the fact, are intended to dramatize events and are not literal accounts.  Click on image to enlarge it.]

Returning to the focus of this piece, Todd A. Farmarie and Nathaniel L. Taylor (1998) seems to be the latest formal genealogical investigation of Sancha de Ayala. The authors examine three possible, but as they acknowledge, unproved royal descents—one from Alfonso VI of Castile, and two from Alfonso IX of Leon—all of which have problematic illegitimate generations even if “proved.”  They discount two claims of Muslim descents. Otherwise, they leave Sancha’s ethnicity a blank.

The above “soc.genealogy.medieval” thread was kicked off by references to Norman Roth’s (2002) book in a Wikipedia article.  Wikipedia, while useful as a jumping off point, is of itself an unacceptable source.  I obtained a copy of the book to examine it myself.

Let’s look at Sancha de Ayala and see what we can learn about her family. We begin with her maternal ancestors, the Ayala family:

Roth does not say in the text that Sancha’s uncle Pero Lopez de Ayala was of converso stock.  However, in “Appendix C Major Converso Families,” Ayala is among the “Converso Families Named by Lope de Barrientos and Fernan Diaz de Toledo.”  Lope de Barrientos (1395–1469) was Dominican master and bishop of Segovia, Avila, and Cuenca.  Barrientos was not unsympathetic to conversos, and I see no reason he would have concocted the list.  Barrientos stated that all of the Mendozas and Ayalas descended from a certain Rabbi Solomon and his son Isaque de Valladolid.  As Barrientos was writing after the death of Pero Lopez de Ayala, uncle of Sancha de Ayala, this comment must include him, and thus also Sancha’s grandfather Fernan Perez de Ayala.  Of interest is the inclusion of the Sotomayor family in the list, as Cardinal Pedro Gomez Barroso’s mother was Mencia Garcia de Sotomayor, a great-grandmother of Ines de Ayala.  Another interesting name in the list is Osorio, as Sancha’s 2nd great-grandmother was Elvira Alvarez de Osorio.  Carrillo is also a converso name appearing among Sancha de Ayala’s maternal forebears.

Turning to her father’s family, that of Diego Gomez:

Roth (2002) p. 94 identifies the wife of her 2nd-great-grandfather, Gome Perez, Aguacil Mayor (Chief Justice) of Toledo, as Horabuena, and states there is little doubt of her Jewish background.  On p. 378, he lists among the “Most Frequent Converso Names in Toledo” Garcia, Gomes, de Toledo, and Vasques, all names that figure in Sancha de Ayala’s paternal pedigree.

This is the complete list in Roth (2002), pp. 377–378:

“Appendix C Major Converso Families Converso Families Named by Lope de Barrientos and Fernan Diaz de Toledo [caps are mine]

ALARCON, ALBARES, ANAYA, ARAUJO (ARROYO? cf. also ARUQUE in Toledo; same?), AYALA, BARRIONUEVO, BERNALDEZ (BERNALDES), CARRILLO, CERVANTES, CUELLAR, FERNANDEZ (family of DIEGO FERNANDEZ DE CORDOBA, mariscal of JUAN II of CASTILE), FERNANDEZ MARMOLEJO, HURTADO DE MENDOZA (not the sons of INIGO LOPEZ DE MENDOZA, DIEGO HURTADO and HURTADO DE MENDOZE, but probably the family of JUAN HURTADO DE MENDOZA, connected with the DE LUNA family, who was the mayordomo mayor of JUAN II), LUNA (the CASTILE branch), LUYAN, MANRIQUE, MENDOZA (the MENDOZAS and AYALAS all descended from a certain “RABBI SOLOMON” and his son DON ISAQUE DE VALLADOLID, according to Lope de Barrientos), MIRANDA, MONROY, MOTICON, OCAMPO, OSORIO (OSSORIO), PENA LOZA, PESTIN, PIMENTEL, PORRA, ROJA, SANDOBAL, SANTI-ESTEBAN, SARABIA, SAUCEDOS (SALCEDOS), SOLI, SOTOMAYOR, VALDEZ.

Most Frequent Converso Names in Toledo

ALCOCER, ALONSO, ALVARES, DE AVILA, DEL CASTILLO, DE CORDOBA, COTA, CUELLAR, DE CUENCA, DIAS, DUENAS, FARO (or HARO), FERRANDES, DE LA FUENTE, FUNESALIDA, GARCIA, GOMES, GONCALES (GONZALEZ), HUSILLO, DE ILLESCAS, JARADA, DE LEON, LOPES, MONTALVAN, NUNES, DE OCANA, ORTIS, DE LA PENA, PRADO, PULGAR, RODRIGUES, DE LA RUA, SANCHES, SAN PEDRO, DE SEGOVIA, SERRANO, DE SEVILLA, SORGE (SORJE), DE TOLEDO, DE LA TORRE, TORRIJOS, DE UBEDA, VASQUES (VAZQUEZ), DE VILLA REAL, DE LA XARA (JARA).”

What happened to the Jewish names of these people?  When families converted to Catholicism, they changed their name, and their “Christian” name might bear no resemblance to their Jewish name.

The Spanish Inquisition is one of the most lurid episodes in Catholic history. It’s difficult to estimate the numbers of those condemned or imprisoned—but the number is in the thousands, not tens of thousands.  That doesn’t take into account those who fled, or had their property confiscated.   An apt comparison are the Salem Witch Trials on a much larger scale.

The following should convey the gravity of the situation, for even death might not spare one from the Inquisition:

“Also, the Inquisition proceeded against those already dead, ‘because it happened that some of these in their lives had incurred this sin of heresy and apostasy’; their bones were dug up and publicly burned and their property and the inheritances of their descendants were seized by the Crown.”  Roth (2002), p. 227.

Due to the seriousness of the situation, I have to accept Lope de Barrientos and Fernan Diaz de Toledo as accurate.  Unlike de Barrientos, Fernan Diaz de Toledo was a Converso.  He served as secretary to Juan II, king of Castile.  Lope de Barrientos and Fernan Diaz de Toledo were very important men in Castile.

As Roth (2002), p. 95 remarks:

“Even though a certain amount of bragging and self-aggrandizement is evident in all this, he [Fernan Diaz] would not dare make such statements (nor would the more renowned and sober Barrientos repeat them) were they not true.  As relator and secretary to the king, Fernan Diaz was ‘always with him,’ as Barrientos says in his Cronica, and personally knew all the nobility.”

One of the difficulties here is the perception that only Jews who had converted to Catholicism and subsequently returned to Judaism were subjected to persecution; but there was a separate, older stream of persecution aimed at Jews generally.  So it’s true families named in the lists are indeed Jewish, but some members had converted at an earlier date.  The trunk of the family tree was Jewish, but not all of its branches converted at the same time.

“Although there did exist some country-dwellers among the Jews of al-Andalus, the vast majority of them lived in the cities.  These urban Jewish communities could be sizeable: there were at least twelve synagogues in Toledo.”  Fletcher (2006), p. 95.

The tendency of Jews to reside in urban areas made repression relatively easy and effective.

Catholic apologists blame the persecution on evil men.  But the popes encouraged and supported the process.  By the 13th century papal bulls were reserved for formal or solemn communications from the pope.  The “bull” was so named for the pope’s lead seal that authenticated the document.  The popes vacillated in their Jewish policy, at times pleading for better treatment of Jews.  It’s fair to say papal instructions for sanctions against them resulted in sustained suffering, but the impact was not always uniform, as witnessed by the necessity for repeated orders by various pontiffs.  Though technically not forcible conversion, nonetheless these measures should be construed as intimidation to exert pressure on Jews to convert.

In 1205 Pope Innocent III issued Esti Judaeos which allowed Jews their houses of worship but prohibited them from eating with Christians and owning Christian slaves.

In 1207 Innocent III ordered Jews of Spain to pay tithes on possessions obtained from Christians.

In 1218 Pope Honorius III issued In generali concilio, to the archbishop of Toledo, ordering Jews to wear clothing to distinguish themselves from Christians, and that they must pay tithe to local churches.  The requirement stemmed from the 4th Lateran Council of 1215.

The 1239 bull Si vera sunt of Pope Gregory IX, addressed to kings and prelates of France and Spain, ordered seizure of the Talmud and all other Jewish books suspected of blaspheming Jesus.  Renewed in 1264 by Pope Clement IV.

In the bull Turbato Corde (1267), addressed to inquisitors of heresy, Clement IV fulminated against wickedness:  “With a troubled heart we relate what we have heard, that [several reprobate Christians] have abandoned the true faith and have wickedly transferred themselves to the rite of the Jews…. Against Jews whom you may find guilty of having induced Christians of either sex to join their execrable rite, or whom you may find doing so in the future, you shall impose fitting punishment.  By means of appropriate ecclesiastical censure you shall silence all who oppose you.  If necessary you may call on the secular arm.”

(My point here is by the early 13th century the Catholic church began to place restrictions on the activities of Jews.  It could not have been a secret that the church was moving into a more confrontational policy regarding Jews, so some families of Jewish descent probably began to conceal their ancestry prior to this time.  Only an idiot would put a Jewish ancestor in their family history.

Given the corruption of the age, bribing officials must have been common.  Today we call it “protection money.”  The late 14th century “de Ayala” family history, portions of which are known to be wrong, should not be taken at face value.)

Rather than offer another estimate of Inquisition victims, let’s view the matter from the vantage point of a Catholic archivist who witnessed the proceedings:

“10 June 1491.  Some 126 burned.”

On one day.  In Barcelona.  A little hazy on the exact number.  The flames washed it all away.

[Puerta de Bisagra Antigua (gate to the city of Toledo), 10th century.]

The Inquisition has never entirely disappeared.  Today it’s known as the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.

Norman Roth’s book is required reading for those with ancestors in this time and place.

To sum up: much of Sancha de Ayala’s ancestry on both sides of her family was Sephardic Jewish in origin, and she had at least one known Mozarab ancestor.  The tolerant polity in Toledo established by King Alfonso VI of Castile began to deteriorate after his death in 1109, and in the second half of the 14th century succumbed to political strife and religious agitation, which culminated in the Spanish Inquisition.

Studying these historical streams from their different perspectives challenges our assumptions of how the modern world was created.

LAST WILL AND TESTAMENT OF RALPH VERNON CHIPMAN

•November 14, 2016 • Comments Off on LAST WILL AND TESTAMENT OF RALPH VERNON CHIPMAN

A Will is a public document.  This Will was drawn up by Linnea Esther Thompson of Moline, IL.  At the time she was a practicing attorney.  She’s currently a judge in the 14th Judicial Circuit of Illinois.  She also witnessed the will.  The second witness, Christine Marie Wignall of Rock Island, IL, evidently worked for Thompson.

It’s an interesting document.  My father was not wealthy, but lived a comfortable life.  According to the Will, if my father pre-deceased my mother Valerie B. Chipman, Valerie was to receive everything.  The Will doesn’t say “for the period of her natural life.”  There isn’t even a token bequest for his 4 children.  His grandson Wesley David Allred is autistic.  Wesley’s Guardians are his parents Arthur David and Debora Ann (Chipman) Allred.  Debora is my sister.

On 18 Sep 2016, Ralph Vernon Chipman died of Alzheimers Dementia at an assisted living complex in Plainfield, IL.  My family inserted me into my father’s his obituary but did not notify me of his death or invite me to his funeral.  I’m 65 years old and receive government benefits.  Those benefits would not prevent receipt of funds from a Trust.  I’m unmarried and currently have no descendants, so my father wanted my Trust to cease at my demise.

The Will was filed for probate by attorney Patricia T. Gruber of Plainfield, IL.

(Click on images to enlarge.)

Handley Chipman’s Thanksgiving & The Chipman Family of Virginia / The Mayflower Compact & List of Mayflower Pilgrims who died the First Winter / Handley Chipman’s son Stephen writes a family history / John Howland’s first step / The search for the origins of Elder John Chipman

•June 24, 2016 • Comments Off on Handley Chipman’s Thanksgiving & The Chipman Family of Virginia / The Mayflower Compact & List of Mayflower Pilgrims who died the First Winter / Handley Chipman’s son Stephen writes a family history / John Howland’s first step / The search for the origins of Elder John Chipman

noahs-ark-by-edward-hicks-100

“[The Mayflower pilgrims] … saw them the vessel after the boat’s return came up to the place of their intended settlement and they all landed and prepared huts for to live in, but poor distressed souls they being disappointed of other vessels coming over to them for a great while to supply them with provisions and other necessities as expected

“Sundry of these poor distressed people died and all was in imanent danger of perishing, if it had not been for the Clams they found on the shores and dugg up at low tide, but it was especially from the Supp & turkeys obtained in quantities [from] the native Indians … which corn they ate and paid the Indians for the spring after as soon as they had gained acquaintance with them who had been very shy of them.

“My said Grandfather John Chipman born 1615 Married a Daughter of the aforesaid Mr. Howland and settled at Barnstable, the next Town but one which is Sandwich, to their Said Plimouth further on the Said Cape Cod, Plimouth being being at the head of the Bay.  he my Said Grandfather was an Elder in Minister Russels Congregational Church, in said Barnstable, and if I am not mistaken removed and lived in Said Sandwich the Latter part of his Day.  He died aged 88.  He had or left 10 children of which my honored father was the Youngest.  his children generally lived to grow up and Marry and from whom proceeded a very Numerous offspring.  As my Grandfather was the only one of the name of Chipman and my Grandmother Daughter of the only one of the name of Howland in New England or any of the now States of America, so the Chipmans are all on this Continent Related as well as the Howlands, and are all of them by reason of my Grandfather and grandmothers Marriage together Related to one another, and so near that Long Since my Remembrance my dear father and the Howlands used to call Cuzzens and the Howlands was often conversant at my house and my fathers house &c.

“My Dear and Honored Deceased father John Chipman, married one Capt. Skiffs daughter of said Sandwich, by whom he had 9 children that all Lived to grow up to the years of Men and Women, from whom has sprang a very large offspring.  Their names were Sons, James, Perez, John, Ebenezer and Stephen.  The Daughters names were Bethia and Mary, twins, as was also the Son Said Stephen with the next daughter Lidia, the others name was Deborah.  They had all entered into the Marriage State and had generally Large families of Children, Except said Stephen, who had no Children by his wife, Dying Master of a Vessel young in Nevis in the West Indies.  They were mostly of more than middling size.  James was a clothier by Trade, Perez was a Blacksmith as was also Ebenezer, John was a farmer and Stephen a cooper by trade.  They scattered much in their Settling in families.

“My dear fathers first wife dying at said Sandwich, Leaving said nine children, He some time after, it may be two years, married her that was my dear Mother, at Capt. Popes at Dartmouth, her first husband was his oldest Son, her second husband was one Capt. Russel, with whom I have been told She lived about 17 months, at Rhode Island or near there about….  She had no Child or Children that Lived by Either of these husbands.  by my dear father She had my Self, her son Handley, and my dear sister Rebecca.  Soon after her birth my dear Father removed from Sandwich to Martha Vineyard, where he lived it may be 7 years.

“Just about a year after my dear Mothers Death, my dear Father married the Said widow Case at Newport on Said Rhode Island.  She had had two husbands, one a Griffin, the other said Capt. Case.  by said Griffin She had a daughter who lived to grow up and Married my Said dear father Son Stephen, who died in Said West Indies Leaving no Child.  My Mother in Law’s maiden name was Mary Hoockey, and after my dear father had Lived with her 19 years She died also with the Consumption.  She was a Baptist.  My dear father soon after he thus Married at Rhode Island, sold his farm at the Vineyard, to one Mr. Norton for L1200, money then at s5/pr. ounce.  he removed then to Rhode Island and Let his money to Interest, but it depreciating fast, he called it in and went to shopkeeping.

“He was when he lived at Sandwich, Crowner or Coroner, a Capt. Lieutenant, and a Representative to the General Assembly at Boston, as I find, by his Commission Left.  While he lived on the Vineyard he was Justice of the Peace and one of the Judges of the Inferior Court, &c.

“After he removed to Rhode Island Government, he was for some time the first of the Governors Council, and was also Chief Judge of the Superior Court or court of Equity, as it was then called, and continued in said office until he was about 70 years old when he of choice flung up all offices by reason of his old age, and soon after my Mother in Law dying he Left off his Shopkeeping, broke up housekeeping, and went to live with my own Sister who had married a worthy person, a Capt. Moore.

“My dear and Honoured Father was born March 3d day, A.D. 1670.  He departed this Life at Newport on Rhode Island, January 4 th day, 1756, in my house, where he had lived some years, after he broke up housekeeping, he went and Lived at Capt. David Moors as aforesaid who married my own only Sister, but she dying in a few years after, he then came to Live with me.

“I would before I conclude the Pedigree of my dear fathers family just mention that I have divers times inquired after the family of the Chipmans coat of arms but never could get Intelligence of it.  And am lately informed that Ward Chipman, Esq. Solisiter General in our Neighboring Province of Brunswick Government, when he was in England a few years past, made very thorough Search after our family coat of arms, and finds we have none at all, &c.

“But the Chipmans in America are very Numerous indeed.  they are, we are, Sure all related, for they are all of them descended from my said Grandfather.  we find they are Spread even from Canso * Eastward to Virginia Westward, if not farther both ways.”

* A fishing village on the eastern tip of mainland Nova Scotia.

[“A Chipman Family History,” by Handley Chipman (1717-1799) of Newport, R.I., and Cornwallis, Nova Scotia, composed ca. 1790, in:

Roberts, Gary Boyd; ed.  (1985).  Genealogies of Mayflower Families From The New England Historical and Genealogical Register Volume I Adams-Fuller.  Baltimore:  Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.

Handley Chipman’s statement validates the Chipmans of Virginia as authentic descendants of John and Hope (Howland) Chipman, but supporting documentation still needs to be assembled.]

For Mayflower history & genealogy see:

Philbreck, Nathaniel.  (2006).  Mayflower A Story of Courage, Community, and War.   New York:  Viking Penguin Group.

Philbreck, Nathaniel; Philbreck, Thomas; eds.  (2007).  The Mayflower Papers Selected Writings of Colonial New England.  New York:  Penguin Group.

Roser, Susan E.  (1995).  Mayflower Increasings 2nd Edition.  Baltimore:  Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.

Stratton, Eugene Aubrey.  (1986).  Plymouth Colony Its History & People 1620-1691.  Salt Lake City:  Ancestry Publishing.

(The text of The Mayflower Compact, by which the Pilgrims intended to be ruled, signed by 41 of 50 male passengers shortly before landfall on 11 Nov 1620.)

THE MAYFLOWER PILGRIMS WHO DIED THE FIRST WINTER AT PLYMOUTH IN 1620/1

MEN:

John Allerton, Richard Britteridge, Robert Carter, James Chilton, Richard Clarke, John Crackstone Sr., Thomas English, Moses Fletcher, Edward Fuller, William Holbeck, John Langmore, Edmund Margesson, Christoper Martin, William Mullins, Degory Priest, John Rigsdale, Thomas Rogers, Elias Story, Edward Thompson, Edward Tilley, John Tilley, Thomas Tinker, John Turner, William White, Roger Wilder, Thomas Williams.

WOMEN:

Mary (Norris) Allerton, Dorothy (May) Bradbury, the wife of James Chilton, Sarah Eaton, the wife of Edward Fuller, Mary (Prower) Martin, Alice Mullins, Alice Rigsdale, Rose Standish, Ann (Cooper) Tilley, Joan (Hurst) Tilley, the wife of Thomas Tinker, Elizabeth (Barker) Winslow.

CHILDREN:

William Butten, John Hooke (age 14), Ellen More (age 8), Jasper More (age 7), Mary More (age 6), Joseph Mullins, Solomon Prower, the son of Thomas Tinker, two sons of John Turner.

26 men, 13 women, and 10 children didn’t survive the first winter at Plymouth.  They came seeking freedom to practice their own religion, and being unprepared for the harsh New England winter, 49 of “these poor distressed people” died.  The given and maiden names for 3 of the married women are unknown, as are the given names of 3 of the children. Surviving the first winter didn’t mean the Pilgrims were out of danger: in the following spring of 1621, Governor John Carver died, and his wife Katherine that summer.

The First Amendment shouldn’t be taken for granted.  The motives of these 49 Martyrs who died at Plymouth were Spiritual rather than Temporal, unlike the earlier settlements at Jamestown and New Amsterdam.  The story of the Mayflower is one of incredible courage.  We honor the Pilgrims by maintaining religious freedom for all as a core American value.

The following map of the Cape Cod area is from:

Huiginn, E.J.V.  (1914.)  The Graves Of Myles Standish And Other Pilgrims Revised and Enlarged. Beverly, MA:  The Author.

Plymouth Rock II

The Chipman family has long had an interest in genealogy.  Between Handley Chipman’s manuscript of ca. 1790 and Richard Manning Chipman’s pioneering efforts in the second half of the 19 th century, there’s this item, sent to me by the late William G. Chipman of Greenville, MS.

Dated 1832, it’s in the collection of the Public Archives of Nova Scotia, and was written by Handley Chipman’s son Stephen Chipman.  The following are extracts from this manuscript (call no. MG100 Vol. 120 #53a).  Stephen Chipman’s portion consists of 19 pages, with an additional 2 by other writers, and 2 photocopies of an old newspaper clipping concerning celebrations at Plymouth in honor of the Mayflower.

____________________

“Sketch of the History and Genealogy of the Chipman Family (particularly the branch who settled in Nova Scotia) descended from John Chipman The Pioneer.  Written by Stephen Chipman Annapolis, N.S.  1832 –

“The C.’s from my G.G. Father [John Chipman who m. Hope Howland] are spread into N.S. New Brunswick, the Northern States Virginia & Vermont &c.

“May they still be blessed as heretofore, still experience Gods peculiar Providence; and may we all at last join as one in the holy train of our dear Redeemer in singing his praises.

“I begin … with my GG Father John C. who came to New England when young, from Dorsetshire England In the reign of Charles first, married a daughter of Mr Howland who was the first settler who landed at Plymouth in 1620, being the first to spring from the boat belonging to the first ship that came to P[lymouth] with settlers, being driven from their native country, by the persecutions against liberty of Conscience in the exercise of their religion.

“The stone Mr. Howland landed on I have been informed has been removed to the third street of the town of P[lymouth] to keep in memory the immigration of their forefathers and the day is celebrated by public thanksgiving and rejoicing.

“In consequence of this marriage the opulent & honored family of the Howlands in New England are related to us – He had ten children … was an elder in Minister Russells church Barnstable Cape Cod, and died aged 88 years.”

[Material in brackets mine.]


________________________

The tale of John Howland stepping onto Plymouth Rock is dramatic, but is it true?

In 1863, Abraham Lincoln established the holiday of Thanksgiving, enshrining the Mayflower Pilgrims as our most recognizable national icons.  Everyone loves the Pilgrims because Thanksgiving kicks off a four day weekend.

The story of Plymouth Rock dates to 1741, about 120 years after the Pilgrims landed.  95 year old Thomas Faunce claimed he’d been told by his father, who’d immigrated to Plymouth in 1623, that the boulder now known as Plymouth Rock was where the Pilgrims had first landed.  So in 1774, the Sons of Liberty, led by Col. Theophilus Cotton, arrived in Plymouth and dug the Rock from beneath a pier.  While attempting to load it onto a waggon, it split in half.

They left half of it where it lay and deposited the other half in the town square beside a Liberty Pole.  In 1834, the piece of the Rock in the Plymouth town square, much abused by souvenir-seeking tourists, was moved to Pilgrim Hall.  In the process, the Rock fell to the ground and once again split in two.  Cemented back together, it was mounted in front of the Hall.

Just before the Civil War, the Pilgrim Society bought the wharf containing the other half of the Rock.  They didn’t want two competing Plymouth Rocks, so in 1880 the half ensconced at Pilgrim Hall was transported back to the waterfront and the halves were reunited.

As Nathaniel Philbrick puts it:  “Today Plymouth is a mixture of the sacred and the kitsch, a place of period houses and tourist traps, where the Mayflower II sits quietly beside the ornate granite edifice that now encloses the mangled remains of Plymouth Rock.”

John Howland was from Fenstanton, Huntingdonshire, the son of Henry and Margaret Howland.  He took passage on the Mayflower as Gov. John Carver’s indentured servant.  As Fate would have it, his employers, the Carvers, died in the first spring and summer, and Howland had no masters—and perhaps received a portion of the Carver estate.

Howland is best known for being blown overboard during the Mayflower passage.  Though submerged, he held onto a halyard and was hauled to safety.  If anyone was going to step onto Plymouth Rock, Howland was a natural candidate, probably eager to feel terra firma beneath his feet.

The story isn’t mentioned in contemporary accounts.  While I’m certain Mayflower passengers did step onto the boulder (it was difficult to ignore), whether it was the first spot stepped onto at the landing may be more myth than history.

____________________________________

Chipman historians refer to our immigrant ancestor John Chipman as “apprenticed” to his cousin Richard Derby.  He was in fact Derby’s indentured servant, probably employed as a carpenter.  That may have endeared him to John Howland, who allowed Chipman to marry his daughter Hope.

John Chipman had two sisters, “Hannor” and “Tumsum,” of whom nothing is known.  It’s possible that some relations of his still exist in Britain.  The Chipman home was at Brinspittle about five miles from Dorchester in Dorsetshire.  John’s father Thomas owned property worth 40-50 pounds per year and held by entail in Whitechurch Canonicorum, a strange place where the church had a grope-hole to touch saintly relics.  Domesday Book, compiled 1086/7,  records the church at “Whitchurch Canonicorum” as held by the Church of Saint-Wandrille, so it was a place of some antiquity.   Of course Thomas managed to lose the property in an annuity or loan scheme, and so began the saga of the Chipmans in North America.

Without going into details gleaned from the meagre sources, suffice it to say Whitechurch Canonicorum was the actual home of the Chipman family, Brinspittle being merely the place Thomas Chipman was dumped after the loss of his property.  John Chipman’s mother (name unknown) was living when John set sail for the New World.

The Dorset History Centre has significant holdings relating to Whitechurch Canonicorum, and those records should be searched.  A check of the UK “a2a” database for the period of 1450-1650 shows no mention of a Chipman at Whitechurch Canonicorum.  Some of the parish of Whitechurch Canonicorum and the related manor of Marshwood Vale found its way into the hands of Queen Mary, who on 24 Oct 1553 made a grant to Gertrude, Marchioness of Exeter.  The manor of Whitechurch Canonicorum can be traced in records dating well into the medieval period.

Several “a2a” entries show a Chapman family living in Whitechurch Canonicorum prior to the time John Chipman emigrated to Plymouth ca. 1637, and this item contains some family details:

A lease for 99 years dated 3 Oct 1638 between Thomas Chapman, aka William Chapman *, of Whitchurch, Dorset, yeoman, son of Thomas Chapman, son of Thomas Chapman late of Haydon, Dorset, and the estate of William Vinacombe the elder and the estate of William Love alias Megges; land located in Axminster, Devonshire; fine 10 pounds.

[* The name by which he was usually known.]

“Chipman” is a spelling variation of “Chapman,” so an alleged connection to a “de Chippenham” family living at the time of William the Conqueror is fantasy.  In English records even simple surnames have many variations—of the same person from record to record or within the same record.  The search for the truth about Thomas Chipman, father of John Chipman,  should focus on localities rather than the exact spelling of the surname.  Since our family was of yeoman rather than gentry stock, extending the known pedigree may prove difficult.

“Chipman” might just have been Elder John Chipman’s preferred spelling of his surname, his ancestors having been known as “Chapman” or “Chepman,” etc.  The tale of his father Thomas losing a substantial property in Whitechurch Canonicorum remains to be independently documented.  It first appears in a deposition given 2 Mar 1641/2 by Ann Hinde, wife of William Hoskins, at Plymouth, and is repeated and amplified in a statement of John Chipman dated 8 Feb 1657/8, also at Plymouth.  It’s an “emigration tale”—and many families have one.  What is not stated, but probably the truth, is that Thomas Chipman lost his property due to indebtedness.  It’s quite a coincidence to find a Thomas Chapman at Whitchurch in Dorset in the precise time when these alleged events transpired.  Is it possible that Thomas Chapman, who in 1638 took a 99 year lease on land in Devonshire, was John Chipman’s father?

I’ve outlined in “Page f.” the descent of Mary Minor, wife of James Chipman (grandson of John and Hope) from Aethelred II, King of England.  The connection with the Giffards through whom the descent passes had some standing with the Chipman family.  After the death of Hope (Howland) Chipman, John Chipman married Ruth (Sargent) Winslow Bourne, daughter of Rev. William Sargent.  Sargent’s 3rd great-grandparents were John Giffard and Agnes Winslow, an ancestry shared with Alice Freeman, Mary (Minor) Chipman’s 2nd great-grandmother.

John Chipman had no children by Ruth, but following his death on 8 Apr 1708 she had him interred in the Bourne cemetary plot in the Sandwich Old Burying Ground.

His first wife Hope (Howland) Chipman is buried in Lothrop Hill Cemetary in Barnstable.  Her grave marker is the second oldest grave marker on Cape Cod.

Hope Chipman tombstone

rPAD / Fiddler on the Hoof (The Lost Jews of Khazaria) / Otto becomes Great

•June 20, 2016 • Comments Off on rPAD / Fiddler on the Hoof (The Lost Jews of Khazaria) / Otto becomes Great

Anonymous and Master Roger; Rady, Martyn; et al.  (2010.) Anonymous Notary of King Bela The Deeds of the Hungarians / Epistle to the Sorrowful Lament upon the Destruction of the Kingdom of Hungary by the Tatars.  Budapest–New York:  Central European University Press.

Brook, Kevin Alan.  (2006).  The Jews of Khazaria Second Edition.  Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.

Dercsenyi, Dezso; ed,; West, Alick; trans.; et. al.  (1970).  The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle. New York: Taplinger Publishing Company.

Golden, Peter B.; Ben-Shammai, Haggai; Rona-tas, Andras; eds.  (2007).  The World of the Khazars New Perspectives Selected Papers from the Jerusalem 1999 International Khazar Colloquium. Leiden, The Netherlands:  Koninklijke Brill. 

Simon of Keza; Veszpremy, Laszlo; et. al.  (1999).  Simon of Keza The Deeds of the Hungarians. Budapest–New York:  Central European University Press.

Weis, Frederick Lewis; Sheppard Jr., Walter Lee; Beall, William R.; Beall, Kaleen E. (2004). Ancestral Roots Of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 Lineages from Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and other Historical Individuals Eighth Edition.  Baltimore:  Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.  [Line 243:  contains errors]

(2) Arpad (ca. 845–907 C.E.) is the legendary founder of Hungary, a progenitor of princes and kings into the 14th century.  (2) Arpad claimed descent from Attila the Hun, but the Huns are ancestors of the Bulgarians.

There is, in connection with (2) Arpad’s son (3) Zoltan, a historical mystery which continues to occupy historians and anthropologists:  was (3) Zoltan’s wife the daughter of the Jewish ruler of a long forgotten empire, the Khazars? The Khazars are known to have adopted Judaism, although exactly when is unknown. Converts were primarily the upper classes.

The events discussed here took place during the reigns of the Khazar kings Aaron I or Menahem. The Hungarians, however, did not claim descent from a Khazar king.

The Khazar royal genealogy is based on a letter written ca. 960 by the Khazar king Joseph to Hasdai bin Shaprut, foreign secretary to the caliph Abd ar-Rahman III, viz.:

King Joseph wrote that the Khazars conquered the land of the Bulgarians and drove them from it.

The founder of the dynasty was Bulan.  At some point Bulan was followed by his descendant (1) Obadiah, his son (2) Hezekiah, his son (3) Manasseh, (4) Hanukkah brother of Obadiah, his son (5) Isaac, his son (6) Zebulun, his son (7) Moses, his son (8) Nissi, his son (9) Aaron I, his son (10) Menahem, his son (11) Benjamin, his son (12) Aaron II, his son (13) Joseph.

Obadiah’s line failed after the third generation, and the succession devolved upon Obadiah’s brother Hanukkah.  For chronological reasons I question Hanukkah as successor to Manasseh. According to Joseph the royal succession in Khazaria followed the rule of primogeniture in the male line.  It’s more likely that the royal succession devolved upon descendants of Hanukkah.   Hanukkah is the name of a Jewish festival—its use as a given name is odd, but evidently it was so employed.  The exact relationship of Obadiah to Bulan is unclear, so perhaps the early part of the  royal genealogy is mythical.  Joseph claimed the Khazars descended from Japheth, the same ancestor named in the mythical Hungarian genealogy (see below).

While Joseph credits Bulan with the introduction of Judaism into Khazaria, it was Obadiah who promoted strict observance.  If Joseph’s account is accurate, then the Khazar conversion to Judaism took place much earlier than the early 9th century as posited by some scholars.  Joseph can be expected to have knowledge of that pivotal event.

The ethnic makeup of the Khazars is another issue.  The so-called “Schecter Letter” indicates that Jews from Persia and Armenia fled persecution and intermarried with the nomadic Khazars, who thus became descendants of Jews who had originated in Judea. That would explain the Khazar “conversion” as merely an expression of ethnicity. Even if partially myth, the Khazars must have had some contact with Judaism prior to their conversion, and there’s nothing implausible about refugees intermarrying with an indigenous population.  Every empire required an educated administrative class—bureaucrats—and perhaps the conduit of Judaism into the Khazar upper classes was through Jews who served in the Khazar royal administration and under Khazar nobility. It isn’t an unknown process:  in the colony of Virginia men who were literate and educated formed an administrative elite.

(Page from The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle.)

I’ve filled in dates for Gens. (2) through (7) to give the reader some idea of the chronology. Although many of the dates are estimates, there’s no chronological problem for this line.  For the Khazar portion of the line, Gens. 2, 3, & 4 are crucial.

THEORY ONE:  (3) Zoltan was older than his Khazar bride.  He could have had another relationship before her.  It was some time before the marriage to the Khazar woman was consummated, and even longer before there was issue of the marriage.  His marriage to her wouldn’t have precluded other relationships.  (4) Taksony is the only known offspring of (3) Zoltan, but (3) Zoltan may have had other issue of his Khazar wife who didn’t survive or who were unimportant.  THEORY TWO:  It was a child marriage on both parts which wasn’t consummated until much later.  In both theories, it was a politically motivated marriage negotiated by (2) Arpad, a marriage which was of considerable prestige to the Hungarians who were the New Horde In Town.  / A woman of this rank was a pawn.  Looking at the marriage practices of the aristocracy, that the Khazar girl had not reached maturity when she was married off is not at all unusual. / One of the problems in this case is obtaining a useful birth year for (4) Taksony and there seems no consensus for it, the latest date being proffered by a chronicler as 931.  However, even if we are very conservative and posit the Khazar woman as reaching biological maturity in 915–920, allowing her only two decades to bear children, she still could have been bearing children beyond 931. / I believe THEORY TWO to be correct.  It’s supported by evidence, as will be seen below…..  

(2) Arpad and his son (3) Zoltan are ancestors of Diana Skipwith, viz.:

1.  ALMOS (ALMUS) OF THE HUNGARIANS>

According to tradition, Almos did not enter Pannonia, but was murdered after the defeat of the Hungarians by the Pechenegs east of the Carpathian mountains.  The manner of his death and by whom is unclear, although he may have been murdered by his own people as a consequence of the defeat.  A tragic fate for a man of miraculous birth: Hungarian folklore says Almos was the son of Eleud and a daughter of Eunodbilia named Emese.  Emese dreamed that a falcon penetrated her uterus from which burst forth a huge light emanating towards the distant parts of the world.

This imaginary royal genealogy from The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle contains the descent of Almos from biblical patriarch Noah, and forward to Almos’s son Arpad, to Arpad’s son Zoltan, and to Zoltan’s son Toxun:

Almus, Eleud, Ugeg, Ed, Chaba, Ethele, Bendekus, Turda, Scemen, Ethei, Opus, Kadicha, Berend, Zultra, Bulchu, Bolug, Zambur, Zamur, Leel, Levente, Kulche, Ompud, Miske, Mike, Beztur, Budli, Chanad, Buken, Boudofard, Farkas, Othmar, Kadar, Beler, Kear, Kewe, Keled, Dama, Bor, Hunor, Nimrod, Thana, Japheth, Noah.  Almus begot Arpad, Arpad begot Zoltan, Zoltan begot Toxun.

2.  ARPAD OF HUNGARY FOUNDER OF THE NATION ca. 845–907>

3.  ZOLTAN OF HUNGARY ca. 903–950; m. daughter of a Khazar prince (duke)>

4.  TAKSONY (TOXUN) OF HUNGARY b. 931 d. ca. early 970s>

According to The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle:

This Toxun begot Geysa and Michael, and Michael begot Ladislaus the Bald and Vazul.

5.  MIHALY (MICHAEL) DUKE d. ca. mid 990s>

6.  VASZOLY (VAZUL) DUKE  d. ca. 1037; took as concubine woman of Tatony clan>

7.  BELA I OF HUNGARY (b. ca. 1020 d. 1063); m. Rixa (Richenza) of Poland>

8.  SOPHIA OF HUNGARY>

9.  WULFHILDA OF SAXONY>

10.  JUDITH OF BAVARIA>

11.  FREDERICK III BARBAROSSA OF GERMANY FREDERICK I HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR>

12.  PHILIP II OF SWABIA TUSCANY GERMANY>

13.  MARIE OF SWABIA HOHENSTAUFFEN>

14.  MATILDA OF BRABANT>

15.  BLANCHE OF ARTOIS QUEEN REGENT OF NAVARRE COUNTESS OF LANCASTER; m. (2) Edmund “Crouchback,” Earl of Lancaster, son of King Henry III of England>

16.  HENRY OF LANCASTER>

17.  JOAN OF LANCASTER>

18.  JOHN 4th LORD MOWBRAY>

19.  ELEANOR DE MOWBRAY>

20.  IVES DE WELLES>

21.  LIONEL 6TH LORD WELLES>

22.  MARGARET DE WELLES>

23.  LIONEL DYMOKE>

24.  ALICE DYMOKE>

25.  HENRY SKIPWITH>

26.  WILLIAM SKIPWITH>

27.  HENRY SKIPWITH>

28.  DIANA SKIPWITH.

(These lines can be confusing because they encompass so many generations, and so many countries, but this line is familiar to me.  There is another line of descent via Henry III, Duke of Lourraine and Brabant, brother of 14. Matilda of Brabant, to Margaret of France, second queen of King Edward I of England.  Another line, formed by the marriage in the 8th century of a Khazar princess known as Irene to the Byzantine Emperor Constantine V, appears to have died out.)

(Khazar coinage.  The symbols are runes.)

The Hungarians, in the manner of warrior horsemen indigenous to the region, attacked their neighbors in the quest for booty.  There was no TV, so you made your own entertainment. Sometimes you won and sometimes you got your ass kicked.

Hungarians fondly recall the early Arpads for their incursions into the West, especially Italy, although not all raids went as planned.  Disaster struck on  10 Aug 955 when Otto I of Germany crushed the Hungarians at the Battle of Lechfeld, near Augsburg in Bavaria. Thousands of fleeing Hungarians were slaughtered or burned to death.  Otto I didn’t want a resurgent threat from the East. The defeat marked the end of Hungarian adventures in the West.

[Throne of Charlemagne in Aachen Cathedral, Germany.  The throne is made of marble.  Otto I The Great (912–973 C.E.) was crowned King of Germany there on 7 Aug 936.  Side view with the throne facing to the left.  Six steps lead to the throne itself.

(7) King Bela I of Hungary died on 11 Sep 1063 when his throne collapsed.  Looking at this structure, formed primarily of stone, which placed the ruler above everyone else, one can see that a fall could cause serious injury.  Evidently (7) Bela I’s throne was made of wood.  When it collapsed, the king fell from the structure upon which it was placed.  Given the Machiavellian politics of the age, one wonders if his throne had been sabotaged.  A clue to this mystery is contained in The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle, which states that during a pagan rebellion in the reign of (7) Bela I, “The common people chose for themselves leaders and erected for them a wooden stand, from which they could be seen and heard of men.”  (7) Bela I suppressed the rebellion, and “the leaders they killed by throwing them down from the high stands….”  I think it quite possible the king was murdered in retaliation for his brutal suppression of the pagan rebellion.

 I have a descent from Otto I The Great through his daughter Luitgarde, wife of Conrad, Duke of Lorraine.  (15) Blanche of Artois has another descent viOtto II, king of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor and Theophanu, but not of Otto III, whose line failed; she was also a descendant of the Salian Dynasty Emperors Conrad II, Henry III, and Henry IV.]

(Artist’s rendering of the German and Hungarian clash at the Battle of Lechfeld.  Arpad battle flag is on the left.  Note the severed body parts.  The Hungarians appear to be wearing a form of “fez,” while the Germans are in full armor.  The Hungarian warlords Lel and Bulscu attempted to flee but were captured and hanged by Otto I.  The victory at Lechfeld assured Otto I’s election as Holy Roman Emperor.)

(3) Zoltan’s exact position within the Hungarian polity is unclear, but all subsequent rulers of the house of Arpad are descended from (3) Zoltan’s son (4) Taksony.  (4) Taksony is said to have married a Lady of the “Cumans,” who is believed to have been Pecheneg.

(Zoltan of Hungary.)

Given the meagre sources, one wishes for more documentation, but the tale of (3) Zoltan’s Khazar wife has some support in a well established practice of the Middle Ages: conquerors often co-opted a daughter of the vanquished royal house in order to prop up their regime.

William the Conqueror, himself the illegitimate son of a Duke of Normandy, married Matilda of Flanders, who may have been a legitimate descendant of the Dukes of Normandy.  William’s son King Henry I married Matilda of Scotland, whose mother was a lineal descendant of the old Anglo-Saxon royal house.  King Henry V married a French princess to solidify his claim to the French crown (which only briefly materialized). Henry Tudor, who in 1485 at Bosworth defeated the last Plantagenet king Richard III, quickly married Elizabeth of York, daughter of the Yorkist king Edward IV.  Not coincidentally, Elizabeth of York was also Richard III’s niece.

The Deeds of the Hungarians (Gesta Hungarorum), written in the late 12th or early 13th centuries, has the following to say regarding (3) Zoltan’s bride and her family (Rady 2010):  

Page 33:  “The land between the Tisza and Igyfon wood, that lies toward Transylvania, from the Mures River up to the Somes River had been occupied by Prince Marot, whose grandson was called Menmarot by the Hungarians, for he had many concubines; and the peoples that are called Kozar inhabited that land.”

 [This area is a great distance to the southeast of Moravia, and thus was not a Moravian dependency.  See map below.]

(This map gives a general idea of the area under discussion, which is in the center to the east.  As is evident, this area is not part of Moravia, which is to the NE.  Poland is E of Moravia.  Click on map to enlarge it.)

Pages 51–53, 57:

“After spending several days, Prince Arpad, haven taken the advice of his noblemen, sent envoys to the castle of Biharia, asking him, by right of his forbear, King Attila, to give him the land from the Somes River to the border of Nyirseg, up to the Mezes Gates, and he sent him gifts, just as he had previously sent to Salan, prince of Titel.

“The envoys of Prince Arpad … coming to the castle of Biharia, they greeted Prince Menmarot and presented to him the gifts that their prince had sent.  Then, relaying to him the message of Prince Arpad, they requested the land which we have named before. Prince Menmarot received them kindly and, enriched with diverse gifts, he ordered them homewards.  Still, he so replied, saying: ‘Tell Arpad, Prince of Hungary, your lord, that we owe him as a friend to a friend in all things he needs because a guest is a person short in many things.  But the land that he seeks of our grace we will in no way surrender while we live.’

“Then Osbo and Velek, the envoys of Prince Arpad, hastened speedily to their lord, and, upon arrival, reported to their lord, Prince Arpad, the message of Menmarot.  Upon hearing this, Prince Arpad and his nobles were moved by anger and they immediately ordered an army to be sent against him.

“Having been granted leave by Prince Arpad, they marched off with no small army…

“… almost all of the inhabitants of the land surrendered of their own will, and … gave their sons as hostages lest they should suffer any harm.

“Having heard this, so great a fear overwhelmed Menmarot that he did not dare raise his hand….

“… they reached the castle of Satu Mare and besieging the castle over three days of fighting they won victory.  On the fourth day, entering the castle, they sent those warriors of Menmarot that they could catch there to the most foul depths of the dungeon, taken in iron fetters, and they took the sons of those dwelling there as hostages.”

Page 65:

“… with victory won, they returned to Prince Arpad, subduing the whole people from the Somes River to the Cris River, and none dared raise a hand against them.  Menmarot, their prince, preferred to make ready his escape to Greece than to proceed against them…. And then, marching on, they reached Szeghalom and they wanted to cross the Koros/Cris River there, in order to fight against Menmarot, but Menmarot’s warriors came and denied them the crossing.”

Pages 109–113:

“That year [the destruction of Pannonia], Prince Arpad begot a son, by the name of Zolta, and great joy was made among the Hungarians, and for many days the prince and his noblemen like the lambs of ewes before rams.  Several days later, Prince Arpad and his noblemen sent by common counsel an army against Menmarot, Prince of Bihar…  All the Szekely, who were previously the peoples of King Attila … came to make peace and, of their own will, gave their sons as hostages along with diverse gifts, and undertook to fight in the vanguard … against Menmarot.

“… Prince Menmarot, having left a host of warriors in the castle of Biharia, betook himself and his wife and daughter to the groves of Igyfon.   … when the Hungarians and Szekely had filled in the castle’s moats, and sought to put ladders to the wall, the warriors of Prince Menmarot … began to petition the two chief men of the army [for terms] ….

“When Menmarot heard this from messengers that had taken to flight, he became very greatly afraid and sent his envoys with diverse gifts to Osbo and Velek [Hungarian warlords] and asked them to incline to peace and to send their envoys to Prince Arpad to announce to him that Menmarot, who had before haughtily with a Bulgarian heart sent word through his envoys to Prince Arpad, refusing to give him a handful of land, was now defeated and overthrown and did not hesitate to give, through the same envoys, his realm [to Arpad], and to Zolta, son of Arpad, his daughter…. Prince Arpad, having taken counsel of his noblemen, approved and praised Menmarot’s announcement and, when he heard that Menmarot’s daughter was the same age as his son Zolta, did not refuse Menmarot’s petition and he accepted Menmarot’s daughter as Zolta’s wife, along with the realm promised him.

“… the whole army, following the orders of their lord, received the daughter of Menmarot after the betrothal …. then … returned with great honor and joy to Prince Arpad, and the prince and his great men proceeded to receive them and they led the daughter of Menmarot to the prince’s house with honor, as befitted the bride of so great a prince.”

I’ve omitted most references to Arpad’s commanders.  Menmarot subsequently died without a son, and Zoltan received his realm.

1.  My first observation is that “Menmarot” is what the Hungarians called this duke (or prince): he was called “Menmarot ” because he had many concubines.  The linguistic construction of “Menmarot” contains two sections, and is undoubtedly not a literal rendition of his name.  “Men” is Bulgarian-Turkish for “great,” and “marot” is Hungarian for “Moravian,” so that “Marot,” the grandfather of “Menmarot” has been thought to be simply “the Moravian,” while “Menmarot” himself was “the Great Moravian.” “Menmarot” was “great” because he could afford many concubines, certainly a sign of wealth.  We can infer from this passage that it was “Menmarot’s ” grandfather “Marot” who established the duchy. There’s nothing amiss in the notion that “Marot” supplanted someone else.  A Khazar king ruling in this time period was “Menahem,” whose name bears a resemblance to “Menmarot.” Simon of Keza (Veszpremy 1999) mentions a certain Svatopluk, son of a Polish prince named “Marot.”  According to Simon, Svatopluk subdued “Bactra” and ruled as Emperor of the Bulgars and Moravians, ultimately conquering Pannonia as well. Simon also mentions an alternate version of this tale in which it was “Marot,” not Svatopluk, who performed these deeds.  It thus appears “Marot” was a slang Hungarian term, not meant to be taken literally, and a passage in Simon (pp. 11–15) offers a plausible solution: “But in the two hundred and first year after the flood the giant Menrot, son of Thana, of the seed of Japheth, began to construct a tower.  Ever mindful of their danger in the past, he and his kin hoped that if the flood came a second time they could escape judgement and take refuge in the tower…. After the confusion of tongues the giant entered the land of Havilah, which is now called Persia, and there he begot two sons, Hunor and Mogor, by his wife Eneth.  It was from them that the Huns, or Hungarians, took their origins.  However, it seems the giant Menrot had other wives apart from Eneth, on whom he sired many sons and daughters besides Hunor and Mogor.”  Thus the names “Marot” and “Menmarot” have their origins in Hungarian folklore.  In this context “Menmarot” meant a “wealthy and powerful adversary,” which heightened the drama of Arpad’s encounter with him.  “Marot” here doesn’t mean “Moravian” as no specific ethnicity is implied, but is a cultural allusion familiar to the Hungarians.  In the ages before the use of surnames, it was common to use a descriptor, like “Hugh the Fat,” or “Louis the Simple.”  And whatever someone was called in their native land wasn’t necessarily how they were known to their neighbors.

2.  My second observation is that the Khazar Empire had under its rule many different peoples, but the Khazar ruling elite wasn’t necessarily primarily composed of those same peoples.  In the account of wresting territory from “Menmarot,” it’s significant that “Memnarot” characterizes his initial refusal to cede land to Arpad as “haughtily with a Bulgarian heart.”  This further cements “Menmarot’s” identity as a Khazar nobleman:  the Khazars had ejected the Bulgarians.  The Khazar adoption of Judaism may have occurred within the life span of “Marot,” but if the account of the Khazar king Joseph is correct, the conversion may have transpired in the 7th century.  If so, it seems likely “Marot” had some ethnic Jewish ancestry, as “Marot” would have been born in the early 9th century, well after the conversion.

3.  Third, as with any empire, the Khazar Empire experienced internal dissension, and its boundaries shifted with the ebb and flow of imperial fortune.  It seems “Menmarot” was a border lord, what the English would term a “marcher lord.” How else could his lands be incorporated into Hungary?

4.  Fourth, child marriages among the aristocracy, for dynastic purposes, were as common here as in the later Medieval period. The Khazar girl was sent to live in Arpad’s household.  (3) Zoltan and his Khazar bride were probably little more than children.

(2) Arpad would want this marriage to help stabilize his conquest of “Menmarot’s” territory.  I mention two THEORIES above, and THEORY TWO fits the evidence we have perfectly.  If (2) Arpad and his warlords were harassing Khazar territory, there would be nothing unusual in (2) Arpad marrying his son (3) Zoltan to an elite Khazar woman. Historians say (2) Arpad conquered territory to which he linked (3) Zoltan in marriage, but was it the Khazars?  The phrase “the peoples that are called Kozar inhabited that land” indicates that it was Khazar territory.  The subtext is (2) Arpad was bought off by “Menmarot,” and part of the tribute was a high status bride for (3) Zoltan.  She was not a daughter of the royal house—it’s unlikely the Khazar king would bestow a daughter on the upstart Hungarians.  But she was the daughter of an important noble, and an important noble might be expected to share the religion of his ruler, to whom the noble’s family may have been linked by blood. 

(2) Arpad didn’t conquer the the Khazar Empire itself.  It survived into the latter half of the 10th century, when pressure from the Kievan Rus and Byzantines caused its collapse.  My understanding is that like the Byzantine Empire after the sack of Constantinople in 1204, some Khazar successor states were established.  Perhaps much of the Khazar elite who fled the fall of their empire ruled in those areas.

I base this portrayal of the situation on how these people behaved—it’s a common pattern.  The events transpired well after the conversion of the Khazar elite to Judaism. The Deeds of the Hungarians contains elements of fantasy, but this tale I think is a skeletal truth underlying the boasting. Some scholars agree. By the time The Deeds of the Hungarians was composed, the Khazar Empire had long succumbed, and the author or authors had no reason to fabricate this specific identity for the wife of a pivotal figure in Hungarian history. A more exalted persona could have been invented for her.  As a nation in the process of coalescing, a marriage to a noblewoman of a long-established empire would have been of considerable prestige to the Hungarians.

Although there had been Christian activity in the region for centuries prior to 1000 C.E., St. Stephen’s reign heralds the official conversion of Hungary to Christianity.  Therefore, in the period of the first half of the 10th century, the Hungarian ruling elite would have had no objection on religious grounds to merging the Hungarian royal line with a Jewish Khazar woman.

The overarching theme is that elites intermarried, and marriages were used to seal relationships. Realpolitik: the politics of sex.

[As this map shows, the Khazar Empire was essentially a buffer state between eastern Europe and the Byzantine Empire.  Note that Magyaren (Hungary) is adjacent to the western border of the Khazar Empire.  Much of what we know about the Khazars is found in Byzantine sources.  A Russian archaeological team claims to have discovered the Khazar capitol of Itil, once thought to have sunk beneath the Caspian Sea.  The team has identified Itil at a site near the Russian village of Samosdelka, just north of the Caspian.  Of the Khazars, the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII (905–959 AD) wrote:  “Nine regions of Chazaria are adjacent to Alania, and the Alan can, if he be so minded, plunder these and so cause great damage and dearth among the Chazars:  for from these nine regions come all the livelihood and plenty of Chazaria.”  Click on map to enlarge it.]

The paucity of sources and the chaotic political scene in Hungary prevent absolute confidence that (7) Bela I of Hungary was the son of (6) Vaszoly.  (7) Bela I and two brothers, Andrew and Levente, were evidently sons of (6) Vaszoly by a concubine. That’s a problem for this line.  There’s a difference between a concubine and a mistress: a concubine is a woman who cohabits with the man (a wife in all but name), while a mistress could be any woman with whom the man has (presumably) regular sexual relations.  Putative paternity is more likely to be correct if the mother is a concubine.

Modern historians accept this version of (7) Bela I’s origins, rejecting claims that he was the son of someone else, claims that were probably rooted in Hungarian religious politics rather than reality, as the following passage shows:

According to Simon of Keza, referenced to Veszpremy (1999), Page 125:

“It is sometimes claimed  that the brothers were the sons of Duke Vazul by a girl from the Tatony clan and not his sons by true wedlock, and that the Tatony family derive their noble status from this connection.  This tradition is certainly baseless and a quite mischievous invention.  The fact is that, being from Scythia, the family were of noble origin in any case, irrespective of the fact that the brothers were the sons of Ladislas the Bald.”

An editor’s note to this quotation states the brothers were the sons of (6) Vaszoly and concubinatus was an accepted form of marriage in 11th century Hungary.  All subsequent kings of the house of Arpad were descendants of (4) Taksony, as was Ladislas the Bald.  Attributing the brothers to Ladislas the Bald was Simon of Keza’s invention to sweep the concubine under the tapestry, and he claims the Tatony family were of noble origin in any case.  Another interpretation is that Ladislas the Bald was claimed as father of the three brothers because (6) Vaszoly had been humiliated by being blinded (see below).   Blinding was a common method of rendering the hapless victim incapable of ruling.  In any event, the brothers are presumed to be descendants of (3) Zoltan and his Khazar wife, and that’s how historians view it.

Several rebellions to restore paganism in Hungary were defeated. (6) Vaszoly was the cousin of Stephen I (ca. 975–1038), the first Christian king of Hungary. Stephen suspected (6) Vaszoly of pagan sympathies and (6) Vaszoly was blinded, but by whom is unclear. The chroniclers whitewashed Stephen I’s involvement because of his position as a revered Hungarian saint.  Andrew was eventually crowned king of Hungary, and subsequently dethroned by forces loyal to (7) Bela I.  So whatever the truth is regarding the paternity of the three brothers, the Hungarians believed they were of royal lineage because they accepted two of them as kings.  Hungary had adopted Christianity, but wasn’t entirely Christianized.  Under paganism, the circumstances of (7) Bela I’s birth would have aroused no comment.

In the case of (8) Sophia of Hungary, for chronological reasons she is presumed to be the daughter of (7) Bela I by his first wife, the daughter of King Mieszko II of Poland.  In a Saxon source she is called “sister of the Hungarian King Ladizlai.”  King Ladislaus I of Hungary (b. ca. 1040 d. 1095) was the son of (7) Bela I.  It has been suggested that Sophia may have been the daughter of (7) Bela I  by another wife, or was the daughter of another Hungarian king.  Scholars accept (8) Sophia of Hungary as the daughter of (7) Bela I by his Polish wife.  The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle states that (7) Bela I married King Mieszko II’s daughter in Poland and fathered sons Geysa and Ladislaus while there, and after his return to Hungary fathered his son Lampert and daughters. So in this the scholars appear to be correct.  Some genealogists are only happy when everything means nothing.

In reviewing this line (1) to (8), there is nothing in it which would arouse suspicion.  It’s a typical scenario played out in a region that even by the standards of the age was exceptionally volatile. Overall I accept this line as “proved by preponderance of the evidence.”  There’s evidence supporting every step in the line.  If asked if I believe the line to be true, my answer is “Yes,” but some of the details are sketchy. 

Of King Mieszko II, an 1835 history has this to say, in the lurid prose of popular historians:

“Indolence, profusion, and debauchery, were his ruling propensities.  Ulric duke of Bohemia, who had during the life of his benefactor Boleslaus [father of Mieszko II] maintained a seeming allegiance, on the accession of Micislaus [Mieszko II]  threw off the mask, and caused the Polish garrisons in his country to be barbarously massacred while they supposed themselves in security.  The success of this measure inspired the Moravians, Prussians, and Saxons with confidence; and the Polish garrisons were put to death or carried into slavery in several places; whilst the governors of the revolted provinces, aided by the German states, assumed the supreme power.  For a considerable time, Micislaus remained indifferent to these disasters, as well as to the murmurs of his subjects, and appeared entirely absorbed in voluptuousness and indolence.  The fear of a rebellion at home at length aroused him from his pleasures; and he unwillingly put himself at the head of the Polish army, amongst whom the courage excited by Boleslaus was not yet extinguished. Accompanied by three Hungarian princes, he entered Pomerania, which province was quickly compelled to acknowledge his sovereignty.  He rewarded Bela, one of the Hungarians, who had overcome the barbarian general in single combat, with the hand of his daughter and the government of Pomerania.  But, satisfied with this success, Micislaus the Idle abandoned the prosecution of the war against the other provinces, and again shut himself up in his palace.  Here he indulged without intermission in the excesses so congenial to his disposition, until he was seized of a frenzy which terminated with his death [on 10 May 1034].  It is recorded, however, to the credit of this monarch, that he divided the country into palatinates for the more speedy administration of justice, and founded a bishopric.”

Mieszko’s widow Rixa, regent of the kingdom, became a tyrant, and an armed insurrection chased her out of Poland.  The nation then degenerated into a period of anarchy.  Rixa (or Richenza) had deep ancestry of her own:  she was the granddaughter of Otto II, king of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor, by Theophanu, d. 15 Jun 991, niece of Byzantine Emperor John I Tsimices, and was the 2nd great-granddaughter of Rudolph II, king of Burgundy.

(Icon of Holy Roman Emperor Otto II and Empress Theophanu.  Otto II and Theophanu were married in St. Peter’s Basilica by Pope John XIII on 14 Apr 972.  Otto II d. of malaria in Rome on 7 Dec 983, and is buried in St. Peter’s Basilica, the only Holy Roman Emperor to be buried there.)

[Sarcophagus of Empress Theophanu in the Church of St. Pantaleon, Cologne, Germany.  Theophanu’s parentage is unknown.  Otto I had requested a Byzantine princess born to the purple (i.e., a daughter born during the reign of her father) for his son Otto II.  The Germans initially grumbled when presented with Theophanu, a niece of the Emperor John I Tzimisces, on the grounds that she was not related to the previous Macedonian dynasty.  This indicates that Theophanu was not related to Tzimisces’ second wife Theodora, daughter of the Emperor Constantine VII.  In the event, the marriage was of some prestige to the Germans and Tzimisces as well.)

The Khazars disappeared, absorbed into the Eastern European ethnic stew.  The Khazar elite practiced Judaism, but were they ethnic Jews?  Getting an unequivocal answer is difficult.  One supposes the Khazar elite intermarried with (co-opted) ethnic Jews in order to legitimate the identity of the elite.

But were the Khazar upper classes overlords of an indigenous populace much as the Norman warrior class were overlords of the Anglo-Saxons?  Some historians agree the Khazar elite differed ethnically and linguistically from their subject peoples.  One trend in the warrior class in the Medieval period is its desire to distance itself from the ordinary mass of people.  Thus Judaism would be a sign of status or class that differentiated the elite from the masses.

In this scenario, at any given time we might see Jewish Khazars who actually numbered in the thousands, rather than tens or hundreds of thousands. A very small group:  the warrior elite, the administrative elite, and the royal family.  Khazar Judaism was not just religion, but something perhaps approaching an order of chivalry.  The psychology behind the Khazar conversion is the identification by the Khazar elite with the epic events of the Old Testament rather than the proselytizing inclusiveness of Christianity. The Khazar Jewish elite did not intend to share their religion with the masses.  The wife of (3) Zoltan would be of this elite class.  Nonetheless Judaism may have trickled into the lower classes.

And as the Norman subjection of England illustrates, during the Medieval period it was possible for a well-armed and highly organized military to control a much larger population.  In any military organization there are ranks, and the supposition that Judaism was the pursuit of the Khazar elite doesn’t mean they could not command troops who were not Jewish.

A few final observations:

(a)  The Khazars at some point had a dual power sharing arrangement between the king, a symbol and social leader of the state, and the “bek,” who commanded the military. This system reminds one of the situation toward the end of the Merovingian period in dark-age Francia in which the “Mayors of the Palace” controlled the military. Ultimately, the “Mayor of the Palace” overthrew the king and the functions were united in one person.

(b)  Religious fervor is not a constant, and observance can rise and fall over the centuries. Constantine Zuckerman dates the Khazar conversion to ca. 861, but I think that date is much too late.  It would make the Khazar king Joseph’s letter completely unreliable.  In favoring a late date for the conversion,  Zuckerman wants to explain why Judaism did not penetrate to the lower levels of Khazar society, but I think perhaps he doesn’t understand the need which Judaism fulfilled for the Khazars.  That the use of Jewish symbols on Khazar objects date to a certain time doesn’t mean the Khazar “conversion” must date to that time.  See (d).

(c)  The sources contradict one another for a variety of reasons, the two principal causes being:

       (1)  They had passed through a number of hands.

       (2)   The writing of history in those times having as a main objective the illustration of a moral point, causing the author to adjust the “facts” to fit in with that objective.

(d)  One account of the Khazar conversion which may have a kernel of truth is that an early Khazar Commander-in-Chief (a “bek”?) married a Jewish woman called Serah, who pointed out to him that he was Jewish, and should undertake the study of his true religion.  The story, while undoubtedly romantic, has at its basis a common pattern in which royal women brought into their households religious personnel and retainers: the wife who civilizes a powerful, but crude, husband. This tale is echoed in the story of St. Margaret, who “reformed” the loose Christianity at the court of her husband, King Malcolm III of Scotland.

We try to sift through the sources for a layer of truth, what makes sense and what does not. However, the identity of Zoltan’s wife as being Khazar is not intertwined with the issue of the chronology of the Khazar conversion to Judaism.  One of the aspects we look at are patterns of behavior among elites—without ignoring cultural variations.  By the time of Zoltan’s betrothal, the Khazar conversion had transpired well in the past, regardless of what date is affixed for it, and I believe the Khazar elite had assimilated ethnic Jews long before that.

Some “Khazar history” is flagrant anti-Semitism, but the Brook 2006 is genuinely useful and should not be confused with racist rants.  It’s surprising how much Khazar history Brook has pieced together from various sources.

However, Brook did not have the Anonymous 2010 translation, which makes clear that “Menmarot” was the Hungarian term for the father of Zoltan’s wife; he was so called because he had many concubines.  The name is actually linked to a giant in Hungarian folklore who had many wives, so that all that may be deduced from the name is the large number of concubines Menmarot kept and that he was powerful.  The chronicler notes that when Arpad’s forces showed up on Menmarot’s doorstep, “Menmarot, their prince, preferred to make ready his escape to Greece than proceed against them.”  By Greece is meant Byzantium.  Probably what we have here is a confused history which implies an area that once had been ruled by the “Romans” (another reference to Byzantium), and a succession of overlords, but given the geography, positing Menmarot as a Khazar prince (meaning a semi-autonomous duke) seems the most logical explanation.  For obvious reasons (being the first to be attacked in an invasion), border areas were rather fluid, and their lords had considerable discretionary power.  Menmarot was called the prince of Bihar, and after Menmarot capitulated, Arpad allowed him to retain possession of the castle of Biharia—and Brook cites “Bihar” as a Khazar personal name.  Brook speculates that Menmarot might have been a Kabar, a splinter group of Khazars opposed to Judaism.

This is the account given in Brook 2006, pp. 164–165 of the chronicle of Anonymous, apparently derived from Douglas Morton Dunlop:

“The men of chief Marot might have formerly occupied the land towards Erdely, between the river Tisza and the forest of Igfon (in Bihar County), from the river Mures up to the river Szamos.  The grandson of  Marot was named by the Hungarians Menmarot, and he was friendly with many people called Cozar.”

This is what the chronicler actually said, according to Rady (2010), p. 33:

“The land between the Tisza and Igyfon wood, that lies toward Transylvania, from the Mures River up to the Somes River had been occupied by Prince Marot, whose grandson was called Menmarot by the Hungarians, for he had many concubines; and the peoples that are called Kozar inhabited that land.”

The translator remarks in a footnote to this passage:

“The name Kozar has been variously explained as ‘Khazar,’ as a corruption of cozlones, meaning ‘people of Kaliz’ (i.e., of Khwarzm), or as a word meaning ‘goat-herd.’  There is no evidence for the existence of such a group of people, save—as usual with Anonymous—a number of place names.  See Gockenjan, Hilfsvolker, pp. 40–1.”

The most straightforward explanation is that “Kozar” means “Khazar,” but Rady (2010) cautions that Anonymous was known to fabricate names from place-names. Part of the reason Brook’s interpretation differs from mine is that I rely on an actual translation of the Hungarian chronicle attributed to Anonymous, whereas Brook derived his information from Douglas Morton Dunlop who wrote about the Khazars ca. 1966–1972.

There is only so much one can do with such evidence.  When you look at a map, Prince Menmarot’s realm comprised a rather large area, and the question is:  where would his grandfather have found a force of sufficient power to subdue it?  And ordinarily in the post-conquest phase settlers are brought in to stabilize the occupation.  As I state elsewhere, I believe the line to be a genuine Khazar line, but it cannot be called “proven beyond a reasonable doubt.”

Reading these hair-raising tales of murder, pillage, and ruin, one imagines a region so thoroughly laid to waste that not even a hen with a single egg could be found within it.

(Arpad flag.)

NEW YORK STORIES (before the wall)

•June 15, 2016 • Comments Off on NEW YORK STORIES (before the wall)

 

(Click on images to enlarge them.)

Shorto, Russell.  (2005).  The Island At The Center Of The World The Epic Story Of Dutch Manhattan And The Forgotten Colony That Shaped America.  New York:  Vintage Books A Division of Random House, Inc.

According to Shorto, Sarah Rapalje, born in 1625, daughter of Joris Rapalje and Catalina Trico, claimed to be the “first born christian daughter of New Netherland” in what is now New York City. (p. 41)

Sarah Rapalje may have been the first daughter born in the colony, but the following item shows she wasn’t the first child:

“Our information upon this point is derived from the Journal of the Labadist missionaries, Danker and Sluyter, who visited New York in 1679.  While in town they lodged with one Jacob Hellekers, the site of whose house is now occupied by the building No. 255, Pearl St., near Fulton St.  They were therefore near neighbors to Jan Vinje, with whom they soon became acquainted.  He was then, they tell us, about sixty-five years of age, a prominent man, well known to all the citizens, many of whom had themselves resided in the town and had been intimately acquainted with him for from thirty to forty years. It was the common understanding that he was the first person born in the colony, and the date of his birth would therefore go back to the year 1614.  His parents, so the Labadists inform us, were Guillaume Vigne, and his wife Adrienne Cuville, from Valenciennes in France.  How they came to be at New Amsterdam in the early days of the trading-post we do not know, but there is certainly nothing improbable in the assertion that a trader or officer of the post should have had his family with him at New Amsterdam.  In the mouths of their Dutch neighbors, the husband became known as Willem Vinje, and his wife as Adriana Cuvilje.  There is reason to believe that Willem Vinje was the first tenant of the farm laid out north of the present Wall St. by the West India Company, and that he died there.  In 1632 his widow married Jan Jansen Damen, with whom the farm is more generally associated.  At the date last named, as we are informed by an instrument in the Albany records, of the four children of Willem Vinje and his wife, two were married, Maria (to Abraham Verplanck), and Christina (to Dirck Volckertsen), while two, Rachel and Jan, were ‘minors’; as both of the latter, however, were married within the next six years (Rachel to the Secretary Van Tienhoven), they must have been in the latter years of their minority in 1632, and the age of Jan Vinje, according to the Labadists, which would have been seventeen or eighteen at that time, is thus confirmed.” 

Hoff, Henry B., ed.  (1987).  Genealogies of Long Island Families From The New York Genealogical and Biographical Record Volume I Albertson—Polhemius.  Baltimore:  Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc. (p. 280)

The Labadists were followers of Jean de Labadie (1610–1674), a former Jesuit priest, leader of a French Protestant movement.

Christina Vigne, sister to Jan Vigne, married Dirck Volckertsen (or Holgerson), a Norwegian.  They were 2nd great-grandparents of Abraham Fulkerson.  He was born 1739 and baptized at the Readington (New Jersey) Dutch Reformed Church on 18 May 1740, the youngest child of Volkert Volkerse and Dinah van Lieuvin (daughter of Frederick Van Leeuwen and Dinah Jans).

Abraham Fulkerson served in the Revolutionary War as a private in Lt. Reese Bowen’s Company, Washington Co., VA militia under Col. William Campbell, and saw action at the Battle of King’s Mountain, South Carolina, on 7 Oct 1780.  His home, built about 1783 in present-day Scott Co., VA is in the National Register of Historic Places.

A superb website about Abraham Fulkerson is:  http://www.fulkerson.org/abraham.html

———————————————————-

My line to Dirck Volkertsen is as follows:

(1) DIRCK HOLGERSON/VOLKERTSEN m. CHRISTINE VIGNE (dau. of Guillame Vigne & Adrienne Cuvelier)  (2) VOLKERT DIRCKSE b. 15 Nov 1643 m. ANNETJE PHILLIPS (dau. of Phillip Langelans)  (3) DIRCK VOLKERSE b. 1667 m. 27 Sep 1691 MARIA DEWITT (dau. of Peter De Witt & Sarah Albertse) (4) VOLKERT VOLKERSE b. 1692 m. DINAH VAN LIEUVIN b. 9 Dec 1694 (dau. of Frederick Van Leeuwen & Dinah Jans)  (5) ABRAHAM FULKERSON bp. 18 May 1740 d. ca. Apr 1822 m. 2 Jul 1766 in Rowan Co. NC SARAH GIBSON  (6) ELIZABETH FULKERSON m. PEYTON WILCOX  (7) PEYTON MILTON WILCOX m. MINERVA JANE DUNCAN (dau. of Joseph Duncan & Elizabeth Peters)

Abstracted from:

Thompson, Laila Fulkerson.  (1979).  A History Of The Fulkerson Family From 1630 To The Present (in two volumes).   Bakersfield, CA:  The Author.

The New Netherland Project of the New Netherland Institute is translating 12,000 pages of documents relating to the Dutch colony:

http://www.newnetherlandinstitute.org/

This is a great website for those interested in exploring New York before it was New York.

dawn of the dead: hitler murders the mentally ill

•May 28, 2016 • Comments Off on dawn of the dead: hitler murders the mentally ill

While looking into the infamous Nuremberg Laws of Nazi Germany, I unearthed this memo, known as “Action T4.”  Dated 1 Sep 1939, and signed at Berlin by Adolf Hitler, it authorized the euthanasia of those with incurable medical conditions—mainly the mentally ill and developmentally disabled.

“Reich Leader Bouhler and Dr. med. Brandt are entrusted with the responsibility of extending the authority of physicians, designated by name, so that patients who, on the basis of human judgment [menschlichem Ermessen], are considered incurable, can be granted mercy death [Gnadentod] after a definitive diagnosis.”

Philipp Bouhler was Hitler’s Chief of Chancellery and an SS officer.  He was captured after the war and committed suicide by cyanide pill on 19 May 1945 while in a U.S. internment camp in Austria.

(Bouhler)

His colleague Dr. Karl Brandt, a surgeon and SS officer, was tried by a U.S. military tribunal and hanged on 2 Jun 1948 at Landsberg Prison in Bavaria.

(Brandt)

Estimates of those euthanized under the program, officially or in secret, range up to 200,000.  The method of death was Carbon Monoxide gas or lethal injection.  Hitler personally approved the use of gas as Brandt suggested it was the most “humane” method of extermination.

The Nazis isolated the mentally ill.  Patients were transported to gassing sites in buses with windows painted black.  The buses were manned by SS personnel wearing white coats to deceive patients into believing they would receive medical services.  Patients were usually euthanized within 24 hours after arrival at a gassing site.

At Hartheim Euthanasia Centre near Linz in Austria, one of six gassing sites, at least 18,269 patients had been euthanized by Aug 1941, using a gas chamber disguised as a shower with a capacity of 150 persons.  The bodies were cremated and the ashes scattered in the confluence of the rivers Danube and Traun at Linz.

(View of Danube River at Linz.  A postcard backdrop for murder.)

“Action T4” was part of an overall “racial hygiene” program intended to purge Aryan society of the weak and undesirable.  The Nazis feared the public would react negatively and deliberately selected the mentally ill and developmentally disabled to inaugurate the program as their unsuitability for life was easily depicted in propaganda.

(Nazi propaganda slide containing photographs of mentally ill and developmentally disabled patients, part of a campaign to prepare the public for the euthanasia program.  The patient at the top is wearing a straitjacket with his arms tied to the bench.  Undoubtedly such shots were staged to make the subjects appear as cretinous as possible.  “Idioten!” is German for “Idiot!”)

According to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum website:

The physically and mentally handicapped were viewed as “useless” to society, a threat to Aryan genetic purity, and, ultimately, unworthy of life. At the beginning of World War II, individuals who were mentally retarded, physically handicapped, or mentally ill were targeted for murder in what the Nazis called the “T-4,” or “euthanasia,” program.

The Nazis used these unfortunate people as guinea pigs: the knowledge gained in killing them was later applied in the wholesale slaughter of Jews, Gypsies, and political prisoners in the death camps.

8 Million murders later, on 30 Apr 1945, Adolf Hitler and his wife Eva Braun committed suicide in their private apartment in a Berlin bunker.  The Russians claimed to have recovered the cremated remains.  Like most of his victims, Hitler has no grave.

Above: Memorial dedicated on 2 Sep 2014 in Berlin for the victims of the Action T4 program.  The memorial features a wall of blue glass which is “an abstract, yet vivid way of showing visitors just how easily a group of fellow humans and even neighbours could be separated and isolated, just like those living a ‘life unworthy of life’ were isolated and killed during the Nazi dictatorship.  Architect Ursula Wilms has said that the blue glass wall symbolises the sky and stands for the victims of the extermination programme.”  The glass wall allows us to see one another when previously we were hidden.

Revised June 25, 2016

Lawcie (Chipman) Mason’s Epistle to a Niece and Further Correspondence / THE TENNESSEE ANCESTRY OF GOOGLE FOUNDER LARRY PAGE AND HIS KINSHIP WITH PIN-UP ICON BETTIE PAGE (with charts & photos) / The Email Trail (looking for an image)

•May 19, 2016 • Comments Off on Lawcie (Chipman) Mason’s Epistle to a Niece and Further Correspondence / THE TENNESSEE ANCESTRY OF GOOGLE FOUNDER LARRY PAGE AND HIS KINSHIP WITH PIN-UP ICON BETTIE PAGE (with charts & photos) / The Email Trail (looking for an image)

(Left to Right:  Lawcie Idella Chipman, Beecher Edgar Chipman, Jewell Vester Chipman; ca. 1909.)

Revised June 3, 2016

Fine, Sidney.  (1969).  Sit-Down The General Motors Strike of 1936–1937.  Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.

Sidney Fine was Professor of History at the University of Michigan.  He was also the author of a book about the Detroit riots of 1967.

While going through my files, I found something of which I was unaware:  a copy of a letter from Lawcie Idella (Chipman) Mason to Beverly Ann Page, written ca. 1983.  It gives information on branches of the family on which I have nothing, so I transcribed part of it, with notes and corrections:

“Allie Oxley—James Edward Chipman

5 children were born

3 boys and two girls

Jewel [sic] Vester Chipman married Ruby Bohannon — 2 daughters (a) were born.  Ruby died and he married again.

(Jewell Vester Chipman, 2 Jul 1988, Paragould, AR.)

Beecher Edgar Chipman married Winfred Bailey — one son, Ralph (b).  Then he married Essie Hyde (c) and I don’t know much about how many children were born to them (d) — Beecher is deceased.

(Beecher Edgar Chipman, 1931.)

(Essie Lee Hyatt, ca. 1931.)

(Joyce Elaine Chipman, ca. 1948.)

(Dixie Lee Chipman, 1942.)

Winford Chipman (e) married Ada Hill and had to [sic] sons, Carl & David.  Ada is deceased too.

[Here’s a rare photo.  Left to Right:  Jewell Vester Chipman, Lawcie Idella (Chipman) Mason, Pauline Aquilla (Chipman) Page Moffitt, Winford William Chipman.  Pauline died in 1983, so this must date to the late 1970s or early 1980s.  Beecher was unavoidably detained elsewhere in the Cosmos.]

Lawcie Chipman married Arvil Mason and had seven children, one girl who died at age 16 months.

1.  James Lee Mason [&] Ester Boyd } 2 sons and 3 grandchildren

2.  Harold Mason [&] Jo Metheny } 3 children

3.  Paul Mason [&] Berneita Neely } 3 children and 3 grandchildren

4.  Don Mason — never married

5.  Virginia Nell Mason [&] Joe Mabry } 2 sons and 2 grandchildren

6.  Shirley Mason [&] Jake Manley — divorced about 17 or 18 years go — has 3 children and four grandchildren.

and then your Mother.” (f)

NOTES:

(a)  Jean and June.

(b)  Another son named Donald died in infancy.

(c)  Essie’s maiden name was actually Hyatt.

(d)  Two daughters:  Joyce and Dixie.

(e) This is one of the few photos I have of Winford William “Winnie” Chipman (1910–1999).  He m. Ada Hill on 1 Jan 1933 in Greene Co., AR.

(f)  Pauline Aquilla Chipman (1916–1983), m. (1) 20 Mar 1936 Carl Davis Page, b. 13 Apr 1905, d. 8 Aug 1963, two children:  Carl Victor Page, Beverly Ann Page; m. (2) 24 May 1968 James Moffitt, no issue.  (See article next.)

[Jean (Chipman) Crom, daughter of Jewell Vester Chipman, and her 1st cousin Carl Victor Page, father of Larry Page.  Carl Victor Page struggled  with the effects of polio most of his life.  June 1992.  Furnished by Jean Crom.]

[Beverly Ann (Page) (Bertrand) Budzynski, Sep. 1993.  Furnished by the subject.]

In connection with the Page family, I have a number of letters from Beverly Ann (Page) Budzynski, aunt of Google founder Larry Page.  This is undated, but probably was written ca. 1988, and certainly before the death of Carl Victor Page, as she mentions him.  She refers to her “Uncle Jewell” (Jewell Vester Chipman).

BEVERLEY LETTER 1 FRONT

[Beverly was confused about the birth dates of her nephews Carl Benjamin Page and Lawrence (Larry) Edward Page.  I don’t know what is correct.]

The next letter is dated 29 May 1995 and mentions “the Riddle cemetery” and an old family cemetery in TN which is not connected to my family.  Beverly discusses her aunt Aileen, who is the “Aileen Loring Page” in the notes to the Page family reunion photo below.  Aileen moved to Flint, too.

This letter, dated 8 Apr 1988, is interesting because it discusses in general terms the origins of her Page family.  I have to take issue with Beverly’s statement that the Pages “seem to be very similar to the Chipmans.”  The Pages were Scots-Irish, while the Chipman family was primarily English, with some connections to the gentry class.  The migration pattern of the Chipmans: MA>RI>DE>VA>TN differs from that of the Pages, and the Chipmans generally avoided the economic hardship that afflicted the Page family.  This is not to suggest the Pages were inferior; it’s just a different set of historical realities.

I have no current relationship with Beverly Budzynski.

The following is an Email from Jean (Chipman) Crom to my father Ralph Vernon Chipman.  It’s an interesting comment on the price of fame.

_______________________________________________

Charts Illustrating The Relationship Between Lawrence Edward Page And Bettie Mae Page

I.

(1) Reputed father of Henry Horace Page.  Larry Page and I share a common ancestor in James Edward Chipman.

II.

(2) Reputed father of Walter Roy Page.

Larry Page and Bettie Page are 2nd cousins once-removed because they are of unequal generations from their common ancestors Jefferson Davis Pardue and Mary Elizabeth McCaig.  I haven’t examined the ancestry of Gloria Weinstein and Edna Mae Pirtle.

[Mary Elizabeth McCaig (1849–1926), wife of Jefferson Davis Pardue and common ancestor of Larry Page and Bettie Page, holding grandson Carl Davis Page.  Notes made by Beverly Ann Page.  Software effected little improvement.  Photo sourced from the Ancestry.com website.]

Above: This photo, of the Page Family reunion held at Union City, Obion Co., TN ca. 1909, and the accompanying notes, were also sourced from Ancestry.com.  In the 3rd row R, the boy standing up is Carl Davis Page.  To the L in the dark suit and light tie is his father, Henry Horace Page.  The woman holding a baby next to Henry Horace Page is Emily Corilla (Pardue) Page, mother of Walter Roy Page.  Walter Roy Page, father of Bettie Page,  is at the other end of the 3rd row, standing to the L of the man in the dark suit and dark tie.  In the 2nd row in front of Henry Horace Page is his wife, the mother of Carl Davis Page, Ann Drucilla (Pardue) Page, who’s holding Mary Emma Page.  Toward the center, in a dark skirt and black choker, with her hand resting on a child, is Mary Elizabeth (McCaig) (Pardue) Winston. 

Identifications of subjects made from the above notes.  Notes were referenced from perspective of subjects.  What the notes indicate as L–R is actually R–L from the perspective of the viewer of the photo. So from the corrected perspective of one looking at the photo, L to R, the notes should read:

1st Row: Raymond Coates, J.D. (held by his mother Pearl Coates), Leona Coates, Harold (Corilla’s son accidentally killed by Vernon Page), Marian (held by her mother, Idella), Mary Emma Page (on her mother’s lap), Luther Page, Norman Page

2nd Row: Cecil Coates, Pearl Coates, Mary Coates (Pearl’s oldest), Mary Elizabeth McCaig Pardue Winston, Inez Coates, Idella –, Drucilla Page, Henry Ellis Page, Vernon Page

3rd Row: Roy Page, Ed Coates, Artie Pardue, Mary Pardue (holding Albert Buster Pardue), Corilla Page (holding ?), Henry Horace Page, and Carl Davis Page.

  (Whew! Click on images to enlarge.)

________________________

THE TENNESSEE ANCESTRY OF GOOGLE FOUNDER LARRY PAGE

We begin this column with the marriage license of Carl Davis Page and Pauline Aquilla Chipman, of Flint, MI, solemnized on 21 Mar 1936—the grandparents of Google Founder Larry Page (Lawrence Edward Page).  The clerk who typed the license had a problem with the name of Carl’s mother, calling her “Drucilla Prucilo.”  The clerk may have thought Carl’s mother was Italian.  My grandfather Beecher Chipman was a witness.  The marriage was also witnessed by Mrs. C.K. (Jessie) Williams, in whose home Beecher Edgar Chipman and Carl Davis Page had been boarders.   At the time of her marriage, Pauline was living with Beecher on E. Foss Ave.  As the nuptials approached, the void her departure would create must have weighed upon Beecher.  Nonetheless, having (carefully) pointed out her many good qualities to Carl, when love bloomed, as a gentleman Beecher stepped aside and welcomed Carl into the family.

(Click on image to enlarge.)

(Resistance is futile:  Pauline Aquilla Chipman with creepy doll, ca. 1918.)

(Pauline Aquilla Chipman, ca. 1920.)

(Pauline Aquilla Chipman, ca. 1931.)

image0

(Senath High School record, Pauline Aquilla Chipman.  Click on image to enlarge.)

(Detail of 1930 Genesee Co., MI Federal Census, Flint City, ED 25-39, SD 10, Sheet 22B.  3rd from top is Aileen Page, sister of Carl Davis Page.  Carl Davis Page is 5th from top.  6th from top is Carl’s brother Luther Page, who’s followed by Beecher Edgar Chipman.  This is the first record I have for Carl Davis Page in Flint.  The residence was a boarding house on Glenwood Ave.  Click on image to enlarge.)

[Detail from 1940 Flint, MI Federal Census, Ward 8, p. 7B, Carl Davis Page family.  Carl V. Page (Carl Victor Page) age 1 is the father of Larry Page.  Click on image to enlarge.]

The following series of R.L. Polk Flint city directory entries for Carl Davis Page give some insight into factory jobs in the auto industry.  The entries carry different job titles which appear to be lateral positions.

ScreenHunter_126 Feb. 14 13.12

(1937: 611 Atwood.  Inspector, Chevrolet.)

(1941:  719 Bryan Place.  Machine operator, Chevrolet.)

ScreenHunter_127 Feb. 14 13.13

(1942:  1024 W. Parkwood Ave.  Factory worker, Buick.)

Note that in 1937, 1941, and 1942 Carl Davis Page resided at different addresses.  Workers living in GM owned housing were shuffled from building to building.  Individuals known to be working for GM can be absent from city directories as sometimes families didn’t reside within Flint city limits.  Clio, a suburb of Flint, also attracted autoworkers.

“Flint grew like a mining camp, without design, without planning….  The incoming thousands overtaxed Flint’s limited housing supply, and some workers were compelled to live for a time in tar-paper shacks, tents, and even railroad cars.  The same lodging rooms were rented to night-shift workers for the day and to day-shift workers for the night.  GM felt constrained to enter the home construction business in 1919, and through the Modern Housing Corporation it had built thirty-two hundred homes for its Flint workers by 1933.

“[The] city ‘never provided’ enough personnel, funds, or services to meet its health problems.  Among twenty-two cities of from 100,000 to 250,000 population in 1934 Flint ranked nineteenth in the infant death rate and the death of children from diarrhea and enteritis, seventeenth in maternal deaths, in a tie for thirteenth and fourteenth place in typhoid-fever death rate, thirteenth in the diptheria death rate, and tenth in the tuberculosis death rate.

“A large proportion of the workers who were lured to the city by automobile jobs and the high wages that GM paid were from rural backgrounds, and many of them reacted unfavorably to the industrial discipline imposed by the factory.

“Of Flint’s 128,617 native-born whites in 1930, 64.8 percent (83,290) had been born in Michigan and only about 30 percent in Flint itself….  The overwhelming proportion of Flint’s Southerners were drawn from the Central South, from Arkansas, Kentucky, Missouri, and Tennessee:  about 10 percent (12,818) of Flint’s native-born white population derived from these four states, and sections of the city had come to be known as ‘Little Missouri.'”

[Fine (1969), pp. 102–103.]

My grandmother Jewel Winifred (Bailey) Chipman and her first son Donald both died in Flint in 1929.  The close proximity of families to one another facilitated the spread of disease.  The Baileys must have harbored some bitterness against my grandfather Beecher Edgar Chipman for taking her to such an inhospitable place.

(Delayed Birth Certificate of Carl Davis Page, listing his parents as Henry Horace Page and Drucilla Pardue.  Her name is also spelled “Perdue.”  I’ll use the spelling “Pardue” throughout.  Delayed Birth Certificates were filed so that those who were born prior to the legal requirement for Birth Certificates could register for Social Security.  Like many people in the South, Carl’s mother was known by her middle name, in this instance “Drucilla.”  Her first name was “Annie.”  Click on image to enlarge.)

[Parents of Henry Horace Page and his brothers John Benton Page and James H. Page:  detail above is from the 1880 Hickman Co., KY Federal Census, Moscow, District 5, p. 3, SD 1, ED 114.  J.D. (John) Page and wife Emily C. have been confused with their son John Benton Page and wife Emily Corilla Pardue.  John D. Page was a shoemaker whose parents were born in VA.  This is as far back as I’ll document this pedigree.]

(Marriage record dated 8 Jul 1872 in Obion Co., TN for John D. Page and Emily C. Sullivan.  Click on image to enlarge.)

 (Henry Horace Page and wife Annie Drucilla Pardue are buried at Cotton Grove Baptist church cemetery in Madison Co., TN.)

[Death Certificate filed in TN for Henry Horace Page.  Informant was Emily Corilla (Pardue) Page, sister-in-law of Henry Horace Page.  The 1920 and 1930 Federal Census for Madison Co., TN shows Henry Horace Page was renting a farm.  Here we have an odd situation, and it’s not the only one for this Page family:  according to his tombstone and Death Certificate, Henry Horace Page was b. in 1871, yet his parents wed on 8 Jul 1872.  On his Death Certificate his mother is listed as Emily Sullivan.  She was. b. May 1834.  Emily’s last child was James H. Page, b. Mar 1878, when Emily was aged 44.  Biologically there’s no problem with Emily as the mother of Henry Horace Page, John Benton Page, and James H. Page.  John D. Page and Emily C. Sullivan had married after the birth of Henry Horace Page, but any explanation is speculation.  In this case, and in the case of John Benton Page and Emily Corilla Pardue (below), the men accepted these children as their own.  Click on image to enlarge.]

[Death Certificate filed in TN for Annie Drucilla (Pardue) Page.  Informant was Luther J. Page, brother of Carl Davis Page.  She was b. 5 Dec 1876 at Madison Co., TN, d. 17 Feb 1948 at Jackson, Madison Co., TN.  Spouse listed as Henry Horace Page.  Parents are Jeff Pardue and Bettie Mccaig.  Henry Horace Page m. Annie Drucilla Pardue on 10 Apr 1898 in Obion Co., TN.  Click on image to enlarge.]

[Tombstone of Emily Corilla (Pardue) Page, twin sister of Annie Drucilla (Pardue) Page.  Emily is also buried at Cotton Grove Baptist church cemetery.  She m. John Benton Page, brother of Henry Horace Page, on 10 Dec 1898 in Obion Co., TN.  According to her death certificate filed in TN, Emily C. (Pardue) Page was b. 5 Dec 1876 at Madison Co., TN, d. 23 Dec 1948 at Nashville, Davidson Co. TN.  Parents are listed as J.F. Pardue and Elizabeth.  The family of J.D. (Jefferson Davis) Pardue (age 31) is found in the 1880 Madison Co., TN Federal Census on pp. 2–3, SD5, ED 98 with wife Mary E. (age 31), and children Otis R. (age 6), Bessie P. (age 5), Emily C. (age 4), Ann D. (age 4), and George (age 7 months).  Wife “Mary .E.” stands for “Mary Elizabeth.”  Entry is found on bottom of one page and top of next.  Carl Davis Page inherited his middle name from his maternal grandfather Jefferson Davis Pardue.]

(Marriage record dated 19 Dec 1872 in Madison Co., TN for Jefferson Davis Pardue and Mary Elizabeth “Bettie” McCaig.  Click on image to enlarge.)

[Death certificate of Mary Elizabeth (McCaig) (Pardue) Winston, daughter of Daniel McCaig and Eliza Raid.  Her second husband was James M. Winston.  Click on image to enlarge.]

Larry Page and pin-up icon Bettie Page share common ancestors in Jefferson Davis Pardue and wife Betty McCaig, who were Larry Page’s 2nd great-grandparents and Bettie Page’s great-grandparents, making Larry Page and Bettie Page 2nd Cousins-Once Removed.

[Detail of 1900 Obion Co., TN, Union City Federal Census, District 13, SD 9, ED 109, Sheet 10.  Family of John Benton Page with wife Emily Corilla Pardue and sons Walter and Aubon.  Living next door is Emily C. (Sullivan) Page, John’s mother, and his brother James.]

(WWI Draft Registration Card for John Benton Page.  On 12 Sep 1918 the Registrar reported that Page had blue eyes, light hair, and his right eye was out.  The birth date of 20 Sep is the same on the Registration Card and the death certificate, but the birth year is 1874 on the Registration Card and 1875 on the death certificate.)

JOHN BENTON PAGE DEATH CERT

 [According to his death certificate filed in TN, “Jno. Page” (John Benton Page) was b. 20 Sep 1875 in TN, and d. 23 Oct 1918 at Union City, Obion Co., TN. Parents listed as Jno. D. Page and Emily Sullivan.  John Benton Page’s occupation was “Painter & Paper Hanger.”  Informant was Henry Horace Page, then residing at Union City, TN, brother of John Benton Page.  John Benton Page survived a little over 5 weeks after he registered for the draft and was buried at East View cemetery in Union City, TN.  Cemetery is still in existence.  Click on image to enlarge.]

[Death Certificate filed in TN for Emily Corilla (Pardue) Page.  Informant was Walter Roy Page.  Click on image to enlarge.]

(Tombstone of Walter Roy Page, 19 Apr 1896—20 Jan 1964, WWI veteran, located at Nashville National Cemetery in Nashville, Davidson Co., TN.)

My goal here is to situate Bettie Mae Page, known professionally as Bettie Page, within her family context.  Her father Walter Roy Page was b. on 19 Apr 1896, more than two years prior to the marriage of his alleged father John Benton Page and his biological mother Emily Corilla Pardue, who, as noted above, were m. on 10 Dec 1898 in Obion Co., TN. In that era being born out of wedlock carried stigma, and his instability as an adult may be partly attributed to the circumstances of his birth. In the complete 1900 census record I viewed, John and Emily claimed to have been married for 5 years, Emily said she was the mother of 2 children, both living, and John said both Walter and Aubon were his sons. 

Walter Roy Page enlisted in the Army on 22 Jan 1917.  On 22 Jan 1920 he was a Private stationed at Camp Travis, Bexar Co., TX, and was released on 5 Jul 1920.  On 17 Oct 1920 in Madison Co., TN he m. Edna Pirtle.  Walter Roy Page’s stormy marriage to Edna Mae Pirtle was exacerbated by poverty which led to his incarceration in Georgia for the theft of a police car.  In the 1938 Nashville, TN city directory, Edna Page was living at 436 6th Ave N, and reported herself as the widow of Roy, who actually died in 1964.  The Social Security Death Index indicates at some point he was assigned SSN # 410-22-9956.

(Photo of Walter Roy Page, father of Bettie Page.  His service in WWI was the high point of his troubled life.)

(Obituary of Walter Roy Page from “The Tennessean,” Nashville, TN, of Tuesday, 21 Jan 1964, p. 19, which confirms his birth date as prior to the marriage of John Benton Page and Emily Corilla Pardue.)

(To solve the mystery of Walter Roy Page, I consulted the 1910 Obion Co., TN Federal Census, Union City, 13th District, SD 9, ED 125, Sheet 9B. The two brothers Henry Horace Page and John Benton Page are living next door to one another.  Carl Davis Page is Henry and Drucilla’s third child.  Henry was working in a stable, taking care of horses parked there when their owners visited Union City.  John Benton Page and wife Corilla have changed their story: they now say they’ve been married 11 years, so the marriage date of 10 Dec 1898 is correct.  John and Corilla lied about having wed in 1895 to make it appear they were married when Walter Roy Page was born.  “Aubon” the son has become “Mary” the daughter.  Corilla stated she was the mother of 4 children, all of whom were living.  John said all of them are his.  As noted above, the explanation for this discrepancy is unclear.  But even if Walter Roy Page was not the son of John Benton Page, but only the son of Emily Corilla Pardue, Larry Page would still be a 2nd Cousin-Once Removed with Bettie Page, and he does share a common descent with the other children of John Benton Page through Emily C. Sullivan.)

[Snapshot of a celebrity:  detail above from the 1940 Nashville, Davidson Co., TN Federal Census, SD 5, ED 99–186, Sheet 10B.  “Betty Mai Page” is third from top, shown here with her mother Edna Mae (Pirtle) Page.  Click on image to enlarge.]

(Pin-Ups like this one made Bettie Page a household name.  Bettie Page posed for “Playboy” in the January 1955 issue.  And she could have taught Christian Grey a thing or two.  She remained soft-core, preferring to work clothed in her more “out there” films and photos.)

 (Although her personal life had its ups and downs, Bettie Page was very intelligent and earned a B.A. from George Peabody College (now part of Vanderbilt University) in 1944.  Her style remains influential today.  Bettie Page is tied with Steve McQueen at Number 9 on the Forbes 2014 Top Earning Dead Celebrities list.  She’s buried at Westwood Village Memorial Park cemetery in Los Angeles, CA.  The pennies on her grave marker are left by visitors as tokens of remembrance and respect.)

Beverly Ann (Page) Budzynski sent me the following newspaper clipping.  Carl Victor Page [cot] and Beverly Ann Page [inset] were stricken with polio during a visit to Tennessee.   The children and their mother, Pauline Aquilla (Chipman) Page [R], were flown back to Flint, Michigan where they were met by their father, Carl Davis Page [L].  Carl Victor Page went on to be professor of Computer Science at Michigan State University, and by his (then) wife Gloria Weinstein was the father of Larry Page.  

This article accompanied the photo.

(“The Flint Journal,” Flint, MI.)

(Obituary of Carl Davis Page, apparently from “The Jackson Sun” newspaper of Jackson, Madison Co., TN.  Since he died on Thursday 8 Aug 1963, the funeral was held on Monday 12 Aug 1963.  The obituary states he was an inspector at Chevrolet, probably a non-management Quality Control position.)

(Hollywood Cemetery, Jackson, TN.)

(Obituary of Carl Victor Page, “The State News,” Michigan State University newspaper.  The article notes that Carl Victor Page “was the first in his family to graduate from high school and college.”  This remark applies to the Page family, as Pauline did attend all four years of high school.  In the 1940 Federal Census for Carl D. Page cited above, under the column “Highest grade of school completed,” Carl Davis Page indicated the 8th grade.  Material was composed by the family of Carl Victor Page.  At this point Google didn’t exist.)

[Note from Jean (Chipman) Crom, daughter of Jewel Vester Chipman, re: funeral of Carl Victor Page.]

Larry Page established the Carl Victor Page Memorial Foundation of Palo Alto, CA in honor of his father.  The foundation doesn’t have a website.  According to “Inside Philanthropy”:

“Page sits on the boards of several nonprofits, but his personal philanthropy seems to be channeled through Google. Most of his giving is directed toward technological advancement, particularly in the clean energy sector. His own foundation, the Carl Victor Page Memorial Fund, had assets of over a billion dollars at the end of 2013, though most of its giving goes through donor advised funds such as the Vanguard Charitable Endowment, making it virtually impossible to see where Page’s money is actually going, if it’s going anywhere at all.”

In this set of Emails beginning on 23 Oct 2006, I was contacted by an individual claiming to be Donald Gudehus, husband of Larry Page’s mother Gloria.  I found it odd because I had exchanged a number of letters with Larry Page’s aunt Beverly, and ordinarily she would have been the person to contact me, rather than a stranger.  Beverly must have a large photo collection.  The phrase: “I have been handling the genealogy of our various families for some time” sounds like:  “You have to go through me.”  I don’t have to go through anyone.  Perhaps it was merely inappropriate wording.  I did Email whoever it was a copy of a letter I had received from Carl Victor Page and one of Beverly’s letters.  I then let the exchange fizzle.  That proved to be a wise decision.

The following set of Emails I received in 2014 are from my first cousin David Alton Dodd, who lives in Tijuana, Mexico (Click on images to enlarge).

I didn’t know Jesus had returned.

I don’t quite know what to say about this.  Thanks to Larry Page, every author on the planet wants to sue Google.

Finally, there’s this item, which will leave all but a very few readers nonplussed.  How can you be in two places at once when you’re not anywhere at all?  And I think that about covers it.

Pauline Aquilla (Chipman) Page Moffitt was a farmer’s daughter.  She was also a descendant of one of the most important monarchs in English history, as revered in the UK as Washington and Lincoln are in the United States.  Some people are timeless—and Alfred the Great is one of those very few.  And among her ancestors were Mayflower passengers and soldiers and patriots of the Revolutionary War.

Of Carl Davis Page we can say his ethnic composition was primarily Scots-Irish.  The Scots-Irish were a very important genetic stream in the United States well into the Civil War era.  Carl didn’t pursue an education beyond the 8th grade because he was expected to work and help support his family.  But in that era having an 8th grade education was common—many managed with just a 6th grade education.  Carl left Jackson, TN lured by reports of the good wages paid by GM in Flint, MI.  There he became friends with my grandfather Beecher Chipman, who introduced him to his eventual wife Pauline.  Carl was an unsung hero among unsung heroes, who endured the grime and squalor of Flint to build a better life for his family—and he succeeded. 

In 1989 filmmaker Michael Moore released the documentary “Roger & Me” which focused on the economic impact of GM’s decision to leave Flint.  The story of Carl Davis Page and others like him faded when GM left Flint, but they shouldn’t be forgotten.  The struggle to unionize GM was a pivotal episode in American labor history.

The building blocks of this line are already on the Internet:

http://www.geni.com/people/Carl-Page/6000000028998162758

I had nothing to do with this website, but obviously someone familiar with the family supplied the information.  You can find an extended pedigree on Ancestry.com.  I haven’t documented this family beyond what’s in this column.

Regardless of the biological paternity of Henry Horace Page and Walter Roy Page, uterine relationships exist between Google Founder Larry Page and Bettie Page, who share common ancestors in Jefferson Davis Pardue and his wife Mary Elizabeth McCaig, making Larry Page and Bettie Page 2nd Cousins-Once Removed. 

It’s confusing:  if Henry Horace Page was not the biological son of John D. Page, but only of Emily C. Sullivan, and Walter Roy Page was not the biological son of John Benton Page, but only of Emily Corilla Pardue, then Henry Horace Page and Walter Roy Page weren’t related through the Page family and didn’t share Emily C. Sullivan as a common ancestor.  DNA tests should resolve the biological paternity of Henry Horace Page and Walter Roy Page as these are male line descents.

Call it a True Hollywood Story.