Who was James Edward Chipman? / William & Milly (Standifer) Chipman’s Family / Cynthia or Sarah: Who was James Edward Chipman’s Mother? / Lauderdale Co., TN Tax Lists / Who were the Wilborns? / Miller Excursus/ James Edward Chipman’s siblings: Cynthia Ann (Chipman) Koonce of Lauderdale Co., TN & Benjamin Chipman of Blytheville, AR

•August 23, 2016 • Comments Off on Who was James Edward Chipman? / William & Milly (Standifer) Chipman’s Family / Cynthia or Sarah: Who was James Edward Chipman’s Mother? / Lauderdale Co., TN Tax Lists / Who were the Wilborns? / Miller Excursus/ James Edward Chipman’s siblings: Cynthia Ann (Chipman) Koonce of Lauderdale Co., TN & Benjamin Chipman of Blytheville, AR

Over the years I’ve been fortunate to correspond with people who provided information about my family from personal knowledge.   This case concerns the mother of my great-grandfather James Edward Chipman (1879–1956).

(James Edward Chipman married Allie May Oxley on 25 Dec 1901.)

James Edward Chipman’s father was known to be Joe Chipman.  Family tradition held that his mother was Cynthia Miller.  That assertion found its way into his obituary in The Dunklin Democrat of Kennett, MO for 9 Feb 1956 (his wife was Allie—not Ollie—Oxley; a second obituary in the same issue corrected the names of his children):

The first record I have in Dunklin Co. MO for James Edward (“Ed”) Chipman is this entry in the 1900 Dunklin Co., MO census (Series T623, Roll 853, p.4), which shows him living with his cousin Charles Monroe (“CM” or “Charley”) Chipman:

Charley Chipman was James Edward Chipman’s cousin, but also a close friend.  Charley Chipman was the son of Thomas Jefferson Chipman and wife Nancy Tennessee Manning.  Nancy was called “Tennie.”

There were two Thomas Jefferson Chipmans in Lauderdale Co., TN:  one the son of William Chipman, and the other the son of William Chipman’s brother George Chipman.

(Thomas Jefferson Chipman, 1846–1930, son of William Chipman.)

The above is the death certificate of Charley Chipmans’s father Thomas Jefferson Chipman, whose own father is given  as William Chipman.  The next death certificate, which belongs to Thomas Jefferson Chipman’s brother Benjamin F. Chipman, adds another piece of information:  the mother’s maiden name is shown as “Stanford.” “Stanford” is a corruption of “Standifer,” which was also rendered as “Standefer,” “Standford,” and “Standiford.”

Of William Chipman’s wife Milly (Standifer) Chipman, I have this from the National Archives and Records Administration, which shows that Nancy (Echols) Standifer died in 1864, and was survived by her children Joshua Standifer, Sarah Howard, Milly Chipman, and Leroy Standifer.  The letter is part of the Revolutionary War pension file of Milly’s father Benjamin Standifer, who died in Bledsoe Co., TN on 13 Mar 1839.

William Chipman didn’t leave a will or estate.  He had mortgaged his farm in exchange for supplies and was unable to pay off the note.  He had nothing to pass on to his children. The irony is that William Chipman, unlike his brothers George Chipman and Washington Chipman, was not a slave owner.  And yet Reconstruction was a disaster for William, but his brothers sailed through it.

Let’s return to the primary focus of this piece:  was James Edward Chipman’s mother really Cynthia Miller?

Actually, her name was Sarah A. Miller.  And a correspondent from Lauderdale Co., TN, where the Millers lived, furnished the proof.  The “Cynthia” under discussion here is Cynthia Ann Chipman, sister of James Edward Chipman.

This is excellent evidence from someone who knew the Koonce family intimately, being related to it by marriage.  Bessie Koonce’s husband was the nephew of John Bennett Koonce, and John Bennet Koonce was Cynthia’s husband.  Like many Southerners, John Bennett Koonce used his middle name.

On page 2, Bessie Koonce states a relationship between Cynthia and Wes Miller:  Wes Miller was Cynthia’s uncle.  How can we use this information to conclusively establish the identity of James Edward Chipman’s mother?

The 1880 Lauderdale Co., TN census (p. 40, SD 5, ED 84) shows Howard Miller with a son named Wesley.  Wes Miller was Cynthia’s uncle, so Howard Miller was Cynthia’s grandfather.  Therefore, Cynthia’s mother had to be a daughter of Howard Miller.

Howard Miller didn’t have a daughter named Cynthia, but he did have a daughter named Sarah, as shown in the 1870 Lauderdale Co., TN census (p. 595):

(Sarah’s brother William E. “Billy” Miller had married Mary Ann Chipman, daughter of William Chipman, on 6 Oct 1867, and wasn’t present in Howard Miller’s household in 1870.  He was present in Howard Miller’s household in 1860.)

Joseph Chipman (middle initial “H”) was the son of William Chipman.  The Chipmans lived near the Millers, as this 1870 Lauderdale Co, TN census entry shows (p. 595):

Sarah A. Miller married Joseph Chipman.  W.E. “Billy” Miller was the bondsman:

(Actual marriage record.  Click on image to enlarge it.)

Joseph Chipman named his eldest son Benjamin after his brother Benjamin, his daughter Cynthia Ann after his sister Cynthia, and his youngest child James Edward after his grandfather James.  James Washington Chipman, son of William Chipman’s brother George Chipman, was Joseph Chipman’s first cousin; their descendants were close friends as the families moved further south into Arkansas.

Joseph Chipman is listed in the 1880 Lauderdale Co., TN Agricultural census as farming 15 acres of rented land  in District 6.  Like many Southerners, he struggled in the aftermath of the Civil War.

Sarah A. (Miller) Chipman didn’t live to see her three children become adults.  According to James Edward Chipman’s medical records, she died of pneumonia.  On 29 Jun 1881, Joseph Chipman (“Jo” is an abbreviation of “Joseph”) married Addie Osteen.  Joseph Chipman’s brother Benajmin F. Chipman was the bondsman.  There was no issue of the marriage.

(Actual marriage record.  Click on image to enlarge it.)

So who was Addie Osteen?  Adaline Osteen, age 16 (born in 1864) was residing with her aunt Jane Singleton in the 6th District of Lauderdale Co.  (1880 Lauderdale Co., TN Federal Census, p. 163). The 1870 Federal Census (p. 591) shows Adaline as the daughter of William and Cathy Osteen residing in the 6th District.  Addie was no more than 18 years old when she married Joseph Chipman. Joseph Chipman was typical of men in rural communities—he didn’t look far afield for a wife.

Thus far, the family history is well documented, but there’s one loose end:  what happened to Joseph Chipman?

In the late 1980s, I visited the Lauderdale Co., TN courthouse in Ripley.  I asked a clerk about the county’s old tax records.  I was directed to a room in the basement.  There I found old tax books in no particular order, and leafed through them, copying the names of various Chipmans who had lived in the county.  I managed to locate the books for 1873, 1875, 1877–1881, and 1888–1889.  I found Joseph Chipman in the 1875, and 1877–1881 Tax Lists.  Sometimes he was listed as “Joe,” and sometimes just “Jo.”  The 1881 Tax List reported him in District 6.  And that’s the last record I have for Joseph Chipman in Lauderdale County, but I did not examine Tax Lists for 1882–1887.  By 1880, all of Joseph Chipman’s three children had been born.

These notes were taken directly from the tax books.  I don’t know if the tax books still exist or where they are now.

When Sarah A. (Miller) Chipman died, as was often the case the children were sent to live with relatives.  A widower could not work and take care of small children.  Second wives, especially those as young as Addie,  might balk at caring for children who weren’t hers.  Benjamin, Cynthia Ann, and James Edward lived for a time with Joseph Chipman’s sister Mary Ann, who had married William E. “Billy” Miller in Lauderdale Co. on 6 Oct 1867.  After Billy Miller died on 10 May 1884, the children were placed with Joseph Chipman’s brother Thomas Jefferson Chipman.  Tom Chipman resented taking care of three more children, and made certain the children knew it.

Joseph Chipman never returned for his children.  According to James Edward Chipman’s medical records, Joseph Chipman died in 1888 of grippe (an archaic term for “influenza”), a highly contagious viral disease that produces a fever.

Therefore, the following deed is not that of James Edward Chipman’s father.  In Madison County, TN, on 1 Jan 1892, “Joe Chipman” purchased a tract of 80 acres from W.C. Pipkin.  W.C. Pipkin was William Clark Pipkin, a grandson of Washington Chipman.  The terms of the sale were these:  Joe Chipman promised to pay a series of 7 installments of $150.00 each, every 1 Jan from 1892 to 1898.  After Pipkin received the installments for 1892 and 1893, he registered the deed:

I conducted a thorough search of records in Madison Co., but could not locate another deed or any probate papers for this individual.  The deed belongs to Jos Chipman who married Hattie Dunlap on 8 Jan 1881 in Madison Co., TN.  They were African-American.

Family tradition isn’t always accurate and should be verified with facts.  In this instance, family tradition correctly identified the surname of James Edward Chipman’s mother, but was in error regarding her given name—an error repeated in the letter that follows. Why was Sarah A. (Miller) Chipman known as “Cynthia”?  Sometimes a woman didn’t like her given name and took another.  In the specific case of this family, there was a precedent: Sarah’s mother Leitha (Hargis) Miller also went by the name of “Caroline.”

This photo was obtained by Ralph Vernon Chipman during a visit to Ripley, TN.  The photo is of William Mack Chipman (right) with son “Fletcher,” although I’m not certain that was the son’s name.  William Mack Chipman was a grandson of William Chipman (1814–1874).

(Notes by Ralph Vernon Chipman.)

This excerpt is from a letter dated 12 Oct 1962 from Ruby (Bohannon) Chipman, wife of Jewell Vester Chipman (brother of my grandfather Beecher Edgar Chipman) to Pauline Aquilla (Chipman) Page and her husband Carl Davis Page.  In the transcription that follows, I’ve left the spelling errors intact.  “Papa Chipman” is James Edward Chipman.

“The new clipping you sent was quite  interesting because when we attended Charley Chipman sisters funeral  at Ripley Tenn. When we were living at West Memphis we meet some  Drumwrights they are apart of Papa Chipman family.

Papa Chipmans mother was a Cynthia  Miller and the Millers at Kennett and Cardwell are his relatives also  the Wilborns at Senath and Cardwell but I do not know how the  Wilborns are connected.  Charley Chipmans sister married Frank Miller  and she was Mollie Chipman.  She still lives at Kennett.  While we  were at W. Memphis we went to visit Jewells cousins at Ripley and  Memphis.  They are aunt Cynthia Koons or (Coons) children Duprie,  Gertrude ? And Mrs. Cecil B. Keltner 645 Pope.  (This is Lily Mae  Koons)  They seemed to hardly remember you all and we didn’t find  much in common to talk about.

The one in Memphis was much easier to  talk to and seemed glad that we came.  We visited her after we had  visited the others and perhaps they had told her about our visit and  she had time to think.  The others were taken by supprise.”

It’s not the Miller family that interests me here.  I puzzled over the reference to “the Wilborns” for some time, and then I discovered this in A Chipman Genealogy (1970) pp. 69–70, in the biography of John Chipman of Guilford Co., NC.  The line as given by John Hale Chipman III was not entirely correct:  John Chipman was the son of Paris (or Perez) Chipman Jr., but Paris Chipman Jr.’s parents were James and Mary (Minor) Chipman.  The rest of the line is accurate.  Our ancestors frequently spelled phonetically and Paris was pronounced “Perez” as in a southern drawl. 

I found the answer to the puzzle in 107–iii:  “Deborah Chipman b. Nov. 3, 1787; m. Moses Wilborn.”  John Chipman of Guilford Co., NC and James Chipman of Bledsoe Co., TN were first cousins.  Note that John Chipman was born in Kent Co., DE, as was my 4th great-grandfather James Chipman. John Chipman and James Chipman would have known each other.  James Chipman was about 13 years old when at age 23 John Chipman moved to Guilford Co., NC.  My 3rd great-grandfather William Chipman (1814–1874) was Deborah (Chipman) Wilborn’s second cousin.

Back in the late 1980s I exchanged a series of letters with Robert L. Shearer, a descendant of John Jump.  John Jump allegedly had a daughter named Nancy who married John Chipman of Grant Co., KY.  Robert, author of Jump Genealogy, proved that John Jump wasn’t from Guilford Co., NC—and he sent me a copy of this letter, now 25 years old, which is quite helpful.  It shows that Deborah (Chipman) Wilborn died in MO.

The notes are a little hard to read, so I’ve transcribed them:

HER CHART

26.  Dauphin Perkins b. Sep 1809 OH d. 24 Nov 1893 m. 15 Sep 1849

27.  Caroline Welborn b. 22 Apr 1829 NC

54.  Moses Welborn b. 9 July 1783 Rowan Co. NC d. 11 Jan 1851

55.  Deborah Chipman b. 8 Nov 1787 Guilford Co. NC d. 18 Sept 1872

110.  John Chipman b. 24 Mar 1761

111.  Mary (Harris) b. 23 May 1761

Some sources say Deborah (Chipman) Wilborn died on 17 Sep 1871 in Pilot Point, TX.  This is an example of a specific, though wrong, date of death, and wrong place of death. How did that happen?  The bible record is preferred over other sources.  Deborah (Chipman) Wilborn actually died a year later, and is buried in a family cemetery in DeKalb Co., MO.

__________________________________________________________

Serendipity:  the discovery of something fortunate; the accidental discovery of something pleasant, valuable, or useful.

___________________________________________

FAMILY OF CYNTHIA ANN (CHIPMAN) KOONCE, SISTER OF JAMES EDWARD CHIPMAN (1879-1956)

I don’t have many records on the Koonce family.  James Edward Chipman’s sister Cynthia Ann (Sinthy) Chipman married John Bennett Koonce on 7 Dec 1895 in Lauderdale Co., TN.

According to her death certificate, Sinthy died on 1 Dec 1926 at Central, in Lauderdale Co.  When I visited Ripley, TN about 20 years ago, I stopped by the local newspaper, and found this brief obituary in “The Lauderdale Co. Enterprise”  3 Dec 1926, p. 5:

“Mrs. J.B. Koonce died Wednesday at her home near Central after an illness of several weeks.  She is survived by two children.  Her husband died a few months ago.  Her remains were laid to rest in Mt. Pleasant cemetary Thursday morning.”

The children of John Bennett and Cynthia Ann (Chipman) Koonce were:

Dupree D. (Dewey) Koonce b. 28 Oct 1898 d. 21 Jun 1972; Edna Gertrude Koonce b. 1902; Lily Mae Koonce b. 1908; Ethel Koonce b. 1911; Imogene Koonce b. 1915; and William Koonce.

MILLER EXCURSUS

The 1880 Lauderdale Co., TN Federal Census lists Howard Miller living in District 7, p. 186:

Howard Miller 66 b. NC (widower, deceased wife b. LA), Jane 20 b. TN (dau.), Ellen 15 b. TN (dau.), Millage 17 b. TN (son), Wesley 7. b. TN (son), Margaret A. 4 b. TN (granddaughter).

The 1870 Lauderdale Co., TN Federal Census lists Howard Miller in District 7, p. 595:

Howard Miller 57 b. NC, Caroline 48 b. FLA, Sarah 21 b. TN, Mary 17 b. TN, Jane 12 b. TN, James 9 b. TN, Miledge 6 b. TN, Ellen 4 b. TN

Joseph H. Chipman married Sarah A. Miller on 31 Aug 1873 in Lauderdale Co.  Sarah was born in Shelby Co., TN, where she’s listed with her parents, Howard M. and [Leitha] Caroline Miller in the 1850 Shelby Co. Federal Census, p. 258.  Philip B. Hargis was residing in an adjacent household.

Howard Miller married Leitha Caroline Hargis on 20 Jun 1844 in Shelby Co.   By 1859, the family had moved to Lauderdale Co., when on 3 Oct 1859, Howard Miller mortgaged his cotton crop and a two horse waggon to B.M. Flippin (Lauderdale Co., TN Deed Book H, p. 356).

The 1860 Lauderdale Co., TN Federal Census lists Howard Miller in District 7, p. 371:

Howard Miller 46 b. NC, Lethe 33 b. GA, Frances 15 b. TN, William 13 b. TN, Sarah 11 b. TN, Emiline 9 b. TN, John 7 b. TN, Alexina 5 b. TN, Mary 3 b. TN, Eliza 1 b. TN (This record shows that Leitha Caroline Hargis was born in GA in 1827.  Philip B. Hargis was living in Randolph Co., GA in 1830.)

The 1850 Shelby Co., TN Federal Census lists Howard M. Miller on p. 130A:

Howard M. Miller 23 b. NC, Caroline 20 b. GA, Frances 5 b. TN, Wm. 4 b. TN, Sarah 1 b. TN

What fascinates me about Howard and Leitha Caroline (Hargis) Miller is this:  Howard’s wife was “Letha” when he married her in 1844, called herself “Caroline” in the 1850 Shelby Co. census, became “Lethe” again in 1860, and wound up as “Caroline” once more in 1870.  By 1880 she was deceased.  Presumably the angels sorted it all out when she presented herself at the gates of Heaven.

Leitha Caroline (Hargis) Miller was probably the daughter of Philip B. and Marian W. (Fincher) Hargis, who married 10 Oct 1820 in Burke Co., NC.  Philip B. Hargis was the son of Jonathan and Priscilla (Askew) Hargis, and a grandson of Shadrach Hargis (d. 25 Jan 1816), a Captain in the Revolutionary War.  Jonathan Hargis died in Tipton Co., TN on  14 Aug 1837.  The Hargis family was of colonial Maryland origin.

Philip B. Hargis had a son Milledge A. Hargis (living in Conway Co., AR in 1860), and Howard and Leitha Miller had a son Millage Miller.   It’s a very unusual name, and onomastic evidence in this instance is compelling.

On 16 Mar 1846 in Shelby Co., Howard Miller and P.B. Hargis witnessed the will of Polly Bennett (Shelby Co. Will Record C-1, pp. 338-339).  Philip B. Hargis was living as late as 24 Jan 1856, when he sold Levi Baldock his interest in a tract of land (Shelby Co., TN Deed Book 24, p. 618).  Except for Leitha Caroline (Hargis) Miller, all of Philip B. Hargis’s surviving children moved to Conway Co., AR.

Sally Hargis, a daughter of Jonathan and Priscilla (Askew) Hargis, married Hiram Miller 31 Mar 1821 in Burke Co., NC.  Howard Miller (born NC) doesn’t appear to be connected to any Miller family residing in Shelby Co. at the time, but Miller being a common name, I’ve been unable to further trace his ancestry.

________________________________________________

This is another family for which I have few records, but I have corresponded with Robert Craig, a grandson of Charles Samuel and Willie Edna (Chipman) Craig.

FAMILY OF BENJAMIN CHIPMAN (1874-1913), BROTHER OF JAMES EDWARD CHIPMAN (1879-1956)

Benjamin Chipman b. Nov 1874 in Virginia, d. 23 Dec 1913 in Blytheville, Mississippi Co., Arkansas, buried at Sawyer Cemetary in SE Blytheville (no marker).

Married 2 Mar 1899 in Mississippi Co., (her first) Annie Ashcraft, b. 12 Oct 1878, d. 18 Apr 1970 in Osceola, Arkansas.

[Obituary for Annie (Ashcraft) Chipman Wright, “The Courier News,” Blytheville, AR for 20 Apr 1970, p. 4.]

Children:

Willie Edna Chipman, b. 1 Apr 1900, d. 21 Jun 1980, m. Charles Samuel Craig

[Tombstone for Willie Edna (Chipman) Craig at Elmwood cemetery, Blytheville, AR.  Tombstone gives death date as 23 Jun 1980.]

Marvin Chipman, b. 10 Jul 1902, d. 25 Jul 1980, bur. at Mississippi Memorial Gardens in Osceola, AR; m. Jody Viola Raport

Gertie Chipman, b. 24 Apr 1904, d. 23 Sep 1980; according to mother’s obituary m. — Flanigan

John Chipman, b. 28 Jan 1906, d. 10 Jan 1987

(“The Courier News,” of Blytheville, AR.  There is a discrepancy: the family information I received indicates John David Chipman was 81 when he died.)

Joe Bill Chipman, b. 7 Mar 1908, d. 16 Nov 1973

(“The Courier-News” of Blytheville, AR, Saturday, November 17, 1973.)

Lillie Chipman, b. 5 Jun 1912, d. 22 Oct 1928

Mollie P. Chipman, b. 8 Mar 1914 (posthumous), m. A. Marvin Humble

[Tombstone for Mollie P. (Chipman) Humble, Jonesboro Memorial Park cemetery, Craighead Co. AR.  Again, a departure from family information: here her birthdate is given as 7 Mar 1913.]

Annie (Ashcraft) Chipman married (2nd) Noah Wright.

Children:

Hazel Wright, b. 28 Apr 1918, d. 1967

Mabel Wright, b. 28 Apr 1919

__________________________________________________

A helpful website for Lauderdale Co. research is:

http://www.tngenweb.org/lauderdale/

Some Harkey Family History (with notes on Rambo, Bankston, Slayden & Pugh) / A Royal Line in Wales / Harkey Tombstones in Liberty Cemetery at Caruth, Dunklin Co., MO

•July 15, 2016 • Comments Off on Some Harkey Family History (with notes on Rambo, Bankston, Slayden & Pugh) / A Royal Line in Wales / Harkey Tombstones in Liberty Cemetery at Caruth, Dunklin Co., MO

Revised Sep. 5, 2016

Mary Ann Cordelia (“Mollie”) Harkey, daughter of Newton O. Harkey and wife Amanda M. Kimbrow, married 8 Sep 1887 at Kennett, MO, Alvis Cowan Bailey, son of Meshach and Lucinda Bailey.  Mollie and Alvis were the parents of my paternal grandmother Jewel Winifred (Bailey) Chipman.

Mollie’s grandparents Daniel David Harkey and Mary Ann Bankston were married 17 Dec 1822 in Wilkes Co., GA.  Mary Ann (Bankston) Harkey was the daughter of Hiram and Susannah (Slayden) Bankston.  

Daniel David and Mary Ann (Bankston) Harkey left Wilkes Co., GA for Pike Co., GA, where Daniel David Harkey is recorded on Tax Lists for 1834, 1835, 1838, and 1848.  By 1850 the family is found in Pontotoc Co., MS, and then moved on to Dunklin Co., MO “in 1853 and located on Grand Prairie, where they resided until their death.  They were both charter members of the old Harkey’s chapel class of the M.E.C.S., helped to build the first house by that name, and were always among the church’s most consistent and powerful workers.” [Smyth-Davis, Mary F.  (1896).  History of Dunklin County, Mo., 1845–1895.  St. Louis: Nixon-Jones Printing Co.]

Susannah was the daughter of Arthur Slayden, who came to GA from VA.  An incredible amount of research into the Slayden family is to be found in:

Slaton, Arthur J.  (1974).  The Slaton Family Ab Antiquitas With Brief Notes On Some Allied Families Second edition with revisions and additions – 1974.  Whittier, CA:  The Author.

Since that volume research has continued, and the following item is from a family bible (click on images to enlarge them).  However, the last child, Samuel Slayden, is shown as born on 9 Apr 1788. Rosamond (Pugh) Slayden’s birth date is 17 Mar 1738, making her 50 years old at Samuel’s birth. While biologically possible, it’s quite unusual. 

There is, in connection with Lewis Pugh, grandfather of Rosamond (Pugh) Slayden, a strange story regarding an inheritance in  Wales.  On 1 Sep 1740 in Richmond Co., VA, Ann Pugh, widow of Lewis Pugh, made a sworn deposition in which she stated that about 1704 she married Lewis Pugh and had by him 7 children: John, David, Elizabeth, Henry, Willoughby, Ann, and Lewis.  About 1731 Lewis Pugh learned from his brother-in-law Benjamin Jones of North Wales and Elizabeth his wife, the sister of Lewis Pugh, that an estate in South Wales had descended to Lewis Pugh from his father David Pugh.  In Apr 1731 Lewis Pugh and his son John Pugh sailed out of the Rappahannock River in VA on board the Captain Loxam bound for Liverpoole.  Ann Pugh was advised that Lewis Pugh died in South Wales and she and five of her children empowered her son David Pugh to collect what was due them from Lewis Pugh’s estate.  She could give no further information.  NB: David Pugh never returned to VA.  The surname “Pugh” is derived from “ap Hugh,” which makes sense to me.

The best study of the Pugh family, which indicates extensive ancestry in Wales, is:

ProGenealogists Official Ancestry.com research firm.  (2012).  Pugh Family Lineage Book One Research Reports For Dr. V. Watson  Pugh Preface By Paul C. Reed FASG.

Available to download at:

http://lewispugh.weebly.com/pugh-family-research-book-i.html

On p. 24 there is a lengthy pedigree from Sitriuc (Sygtrygg “Silkenbeard”), King of Dublin, d. 1042, who m. Slani, daughter of Brian Boru, High King of Ireland, to Lewis Pugh.  The 5th generation states that Cadwaladr ap Gruffudd, Prince of North Wales, m. Adles, daughter of Richard de Clare, and were the parents of Richert (Richard) ap Cadwaladr.  The Richard de Clare here referenced was 3rd Lord of Clare, d. 1136, son of Gilbert fitz Richard de Clare and Adeliza de Claremont.  He m. Adeliz, daughter of Ranulf, 4th Earl of Chester.

Pryce, Huw, ed.; Insley, Charles, asst. ed.  (2005).  The Acts Of Welsh Rulers 1120–1283 Published on behalf of the History and Law Committee of the University of Wales Board of Celtic Studies.  Cardiff: University Of Wales Press.  (see pp. 329–331)

According to the above, there’s a problem with Cadwaladr’s marriage: Richard de Clare’s daughter Alice is said to have entered a convent upon the death in 1141 of her first husband, Aubrey de Vere II.  The editors propose an alternate solution: Cadwaladr’s wife was actually Adeliza of Chester, Richard de Clare’s widow.  In support of this they cite Welsh genealogical collections which name Cadwaladr’s wife as “Adles daughter of the earl of Chester,” who was the mother of 4 of his sons, including Rhicert (“Richard”—evidently the Viceroy of Dinllaen in Llyn, North Wales’ main port to Ireland), and Randlff (Ranulph).  This would place her as the daughter of Ranulph le Meschin, 4th Earl of Chester by Lucy, who, according to Keats-Rohan, was the daughter of Turold, sheriff of Lincoln by a daughter of William Malet.  Others are not quite so certain (see CP VII Appendix J).  Why does Lucy put me in mind of Oak Island?

The Complete Peerage, Vol. III, p. 243 calls her “Adeliz, sister of Ranulph ‘des Gernons,’ Earl of Chester,” and notes she “was rescued from the Welsh by Miles of Gloucester.”

Ancestral Roots Eighth Edition, Line 132D claims Adeliz’s second husband was Robert de Condet, d. 1141, son of Osbert de Condet, but neither The Complete Peerage nor J.R. Planche (1870) mention such a marriage.  Certainly marriage to a Welsh prince would be of considerably more prestige, and given the evidence above, I think Cadwaladr’s marriage to the widow of Richard de Clare is adequately supported, but more evidence is welcome.

Thus it appears that Lewis Pugh’s ancestry follows the family of the earls of Chester rather than the lords of Clare, and that is a more tortuous path.  Adeliz’s father Ranulph le Meschin, the 4th earl, was the son of Ranulph, Vicomte de Bayeaux by Margaret, sister of Hugh d’Avranches, the 2nd earl.  Richard, the 3rd earl, had drowned in the White Ship disaster which took the life of William, son of King Henry I of England.  David C. Douglas, the biographer of William the Conqueror, says Hugh’s mother Emma wasn’t the daughter of William the Conqueror’s mother Herleve, and therefore Hugh wasn’t William’s nephew.  So we are left with the conclusion that the meteoric rise of Hugh the 2nd earl was due to his support of William the Conqueror’s English venture and not any known family relationship.

Nonetheless, Lewis Pugh’s ancestry is interesting for its connection to royal figures in Wales and Ireland.  A fascinating account of Gruffudd ap Cynan, King of Gwynedd (d. 1137), father of Cadwaladr, is found in:

Jones M.A., Arthur.  (1910).  The History Of Gruffydd ap Cynan The Welsh Text With Translation, Introduction, And Notes.  Manchester: The University Of Manchester Press.  (Free download from Internet Archive.)

The Bankstons were originally Swedish settlers along the Delaware River in PA, and descend from the famous Swedish pioneer Peter Gunnarson Rambo (ca. 1612–1698) through his daughter Gertrude who married Andrew Bankson (Anders Bengtsson).  

Soderlund, Jean R.  (2015).  Lenape Country Delaware Valley Society Before William Penn.  Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Soderlund’s study of the early Delaware Valley contains many references to the Rambo and Bengtsson families, with a backdrop of Lenape (Delaware Native American tribe) relations with waves of Swedish, Dutch, and English settlers.

For Rambo genealogy, see:

Rambo, Beverly Nelson; Beatty, Ronald S.  (2007).  The Rambo Family Tree 2ND Edition. July 2007 Descendants Of Peter Gunnarson Rambo Third Volume: Descendants Of His Daughter, Gertrude Rambo Bankson.  Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse.

A thorough study of the Bankston family is:

Haigler, Anne Martin.  (1998).  Bankston Cousins 1656–1996.  Florissant, MO: Hardbound, Inc.

Mary Ann (Bankston) Harkey’s 2nd great-grandmother Rebecca (Hendricks) Bankson was a descendant of PA pioneer Albertus Hendrickson who was of Dutch ancestry.

The principle treatise on the Hendricks family is:

Davenport, John Scott.  (1993).  The Frontier Hendricks Being A Quest to Identify and Define The Descendants of Albertus Hendrickson, Carpenter, A Dutch Emigrant To America Before 1670, Who Died in Chester County, Province of Pennsylvania, in 1716 Volume I, 1991–1993 Working Papers (Reports 1–12).  La Plata, MD:  The Frontier Hendricks Association.

[The Rambo Apple, introduced into the Colony of New Sweden (PA) by Peter Gunnarson Rambo and his family.]

Daniel and Mary left GA and settled in Pontotoc Co., MS, where they’re found in the 1850 Pontotoc Federal census on pp. 92B & 93.   Daniel D. Harkey, son of Daniel and Mary Ann, m. Nancy L. Hamlin on 25 Sep 1851 in Pontotoc Co.  The family moved on to Dunklin Co., MO.  Several of their sons became prominent in local affairs.

CENSUS YR: 1850
STATE: MS
COUNTY: PONTOTOC
REEL NO: M432-360 PAGE NO: 93 HOUSEHOLD: 535
REFERENCE: 23RD DAY OF SEPTEMBER 1850, ANDREW J. CLARK ASS’T MARSHAL
________________________________________________

HARKEY DANIEL 53 M FARMER 1,880 NC
HARKEY MA 48 F GA (1)
HARKEY DANIEL 9 M FARMER GA (2)
HARKEY HIRAM 15 M GA
HARKEY WELLBORNE 13 M GA
HARKEY NEWTON 12 M GA (3)
HARKEY NEWSOM 12 M GA (3)
HARKEY FRANCIS 8 M GA
HARKEY JASPER 7 M GA

(1) Mary Ann (Bankston) Harkey

(2) Daniel Harkey married in Pontotoc Co. in 1851, so he wasn’t 9 in 1850. This is probably an error in the transcription, and he was actually 19.

(3) Twins

(Detail of 1850 Pontotoc Co., MS Federal Census.)

[Detail from the 1860 Dunklin Co., MO Federal Census showing Mary Ann (Bankston) Harkey next door to her son Samuel Jones Harkey, a Methodist minister.  Also in his household is a school teacher.  Click on image to enlarge it.]

Daniel and Mary had nine sons:  Samuel Jones Harkey, Methodist minister; William M. Harkey, state legislator; Daniel D. Harkey; Hiram W. Harkey; Wilburn David Harkey (buried at Cude Cemetary, Senath, MO); Newsom A. Harkey; Newton O. Harkey (twin of Newsom A. Harkey); Francis M. “Nugg” Harkey, judge; and Jasper H. “Jap” Harkey (buried at Cude Cemetary, Senath, MO).  Wilburn David Harkey and Jasper H. Harkey were active Masons.

I shot this series of tombstone photos about 1990 at Liberty Cemetary near Caruth in Dunklin Co., MO.  The tombstones are in deplorable condition.  Those of Daniel David Harkey, Newton O. Harkey, and Amanda M. (Kimbrow) Harkey are cracked.  I was able to locate both pieces of Newton and Amanda’s tombstones, and put them back together to take photos.  Often tombstones that are difficult to photograph can be read in person.

(Click on images to enlarge them.)

(Daniel David Harkey, b. Mar. 25, 1797 in NC, d. Jun. 25, 1858 in Dunklin Co., MO.)

[Mary A. (Bankston) Harkey, wife of Daniel David Harkey, b. Sep. 25, 1801 in Wilkes Co., GA, d. Mar. 7, 1879 in Dunklin Co., MO.  This grave is unusual because there’s a footstone reading “Mary A.” (see below).]

[Newton O. Harkey, son of Daniel David and Mary A. (Bankston) Harkey, b. Nov. 22, 1838 in Pike Co., GA, d. Feb. 2, 1880 of malaria in Dunklin Co.]

[Amanda M. (Kimbrow) Harkey, wife of Newton O. Harkey, b. Dec. 26, 1843 in MO, d. Sep. 7, 1901 in Dunklin Co.  Amanda was the daughter of William and Annie Bradford (Branch) Kimbrow.  William Kimbrow was an early Dunklin Co. sheriff.]

[Hiram W. Harkey, son of Daniel David and Mary A. (Bankston) Harkey, b. 1835, d. Nov. 8, 1856.  Although the year of birth is plainly visible, the month and day of birth weren’t legible.]

DIRECTIONS TO LIBERTY CEMETERY NEAR CARUTH, MO:

From Kennett (county seat of Dunklin Co., MO), take HWY 412 S to HWY Y, at County Rd 549C turn right.  Cemetery can be seen from HWY Y before the turn off.  I don’t know if the tombstones I photographed remain in situ in recognizable condition.

Handley Chipman’s Thanksgiving & The Chipman Family of Virginia / The Mayflower Compact & List of Mayflower Pilgrims who died the First Winter / Handley Chipman’s son Stephen writes a family history / John Howland’s first step / The search for the origins of Elder John Chipman

•June 24, 2016 • Comments Off on Handley Chipman’s Thanksgiving & The Chipman Family of Virginia / The Mayflower Compact & List of Mayflower Pilgrims who died the First Winter / Handley Chipman’s son Stephen writes a family history / John Howland’s first step / The search for the origins of Elder John Chipman

noahs-ark-by-edward-hicks-100

“[The Mayflower pilgrims] … saw them the vessel after the boat’s return came up to the place of their intended settlement and they all landed and prepared huts for to live in, but poor distressed souls they being disappointed of other vessels coming over to them for a great while to supply them with provisions and other necessities as expected

“Sundry of these poor distressed people died and all was in imanent danger of perishing, if it had not been for the Clams they found on the shores and dugg up at low tide, but it was especially from the Supp & turkeys obtained in quantities [from] the native Indians … which corn they ate and paid the Indians for the spring after as soon as they had gained acquaintance with them who had been very shy of them.

“My said Grandfather John Chipman born 1615 Married a Daughter of the aforesaid Mr. Howland and settled at Barnstable, the next Town but one which is Sandwich, to their Said Plimouth further on the Said Cape Cod, Plimouth being being at the head of the Bay.  he my Said Grandfather was an Elder in Minister Russels Congregational Church, in said Barnstable, and if I am not mistaken removed and lived in Said Sandwich the Latter part of his Day.  He died aged 88.  He had or left 10 children of which my honored father was the Youngest.  his children generally lived to grow up and Marry and from whom proceeded a very Numerous offspring.  As my Grandfather was the only one of the name of Chipman and my Grandmother Daughter of the only one of the name of Howland in New England or any of the now States of America, so the Chipmans are all on this Continent Related as well as the Howlands, and are all of them by reason of my Grandfather and grandmothers Marriage together Related to one another, and so near that Long Since my Remembrance my dear father and the Howlands used to call Cuzzens and the Howlands was often conversant at my house and my fathers house &c.

“My Dear and Honored Deceased father John Chipman, married one Capt. Skiffs daughter of said Sandwich, by whom he had 9 children that all Lived to grow up to the years of Men and Women, from whom has sprang a very large offspring.  Their names were Sons, James, Perez, John, Ebenezer and Stephen.  The Daughters names were Bethia and Mary, twins, as was also the Son Said Stephen with the next daughter Lidia, the others name was Deborah.  They had all entered into the Marriage State and had generally Large families of Children, Except said Stephen, who had no Children by his wife, Dying Master of a Vessel young in Nevis in the West Indies.  They were mostly of more than middling size.  James was a clothier by Trade, Perez was a Blacksmith as was also Ebenezer, John was a farmer and Stephen a cooper by trade.  They scattered much in their Settling in families.

“My dear fathers first wife dying at said Sandwich, Leaving said nine children, He some time after, it may be two years, married her that was my dear Mother, at Capt. Popes at Dartmouth, her first husband was his oldest Son, her second husband was one Capt. Russel, with whom I have been told She lived about 17 months, at Rhode Island or near there about….  She had no Child or Children that Lived by Either of these husbands.  by my dear father She had my Self, her son Handley, and my dear sister Rebecca.  Soon after her birth my dear Father removed from Sandwich to Martha Vineyard, where he lived it may be 7 years.

“Just about a year after my dear Mothers Death, my dear Father married the Said widow Case at Newport on Said Rhode Island.  She had had two husbands, one a Griffin, the other said Capt. Case.  by said Griffin She had a daughter who lived to grow up and Married my Said dear father Son Stephen, who died in Said West Indies Leaving no Child.  My Mother in Law’s maiden name was Mary Hoockey, and after my dear father had Lived with her 19 years She died also with the Consumption.  She was a Baptist.  My dear father soon after he thus Married at Rhode Island, sold his farm at the Vineyard, to one Mr. Norton for L1200, money then at s5/pr. ounce.  he removed then to Rhode Island and Let his money to Interest, but it depreciating fast, he called it in and went to shopkeeping.

“He was when he lived at Sandwich, Crowner or Coroner, a Capt. Lieutenant, and a Representative to the General Assembly at Boston, as I find, by his Commission Left.  While he lived on the Vineyard he was Justice of the Peace and one of the Judges of the Inferior Court, &c.

“After he removed to Rhode Island Government, he was for some time the first of the Governors Council, and was also Chief Judge of the Superior Court or court of Equity, as it was then called, and continued in said office until he was about 70 years old when he of choice flung up all offices by reason of his old age, and soon after my Mother in Law dying he Left off his Shopkeeping, broke up housekeeping, and went to live with my own Sister who had married a worthy person, a Capt. Moore.

“My dear and Honoured Father was born March 3d day, A.D. 1670.  He departed this Life at Newport on Rhode Island, January 4 th day, 1756, in my house, where he had lived some years, after he broke up housekeeping, he went and Lived at Capt. David Moors as aforesaid who married my own only Sister, but she dying in a few years after, he then came to Live with me.

“I would before I conclude the Pedigree of my dear fathers family just mention that I have divers times inquired after the family of the Chipmans coat of arms but never could get Intelligence of it.  And am lately informed that Ward Chipman, Esq. Solisiter General in our Neighboring Province of Brunswick Government, when he was in England a few years past, made very thorough Search after our family coat of arms, and finds we have none at all, &c.

“But the Chipmans in America are very Numerous indeed.  they are, we are, Sure all related, for they are all of them descended from my said Grandfather.  we find they are Spread even from Canso * Eastward to Virginia Westward, if not farther both ways.”

* A fishing village on the eastern tip of mainland Nova Scotia.

[“A Chipman Family History,” by Handley Chipman (1717-1799) of Newport, R.I., and Cornwallis, Nova Scotia, composed ca. 1790, in:

Roberts, Gary Boyd; ed.  (1985).  Genealogies of Mayflower Families From The New England Historical and Genealogical Register Volume I Adams-Fuller.  Baltimore:  Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.

Handley Chipman’s statement validates the Chipmans of Virginia as authentic descendants of John and Hope (Howland) Chipman, but supporting documentation still needs to be assembled.]

For Mayflower history & genealogy see:

Philbreck, Nathaniel.  (2006).  Mayflower A Story of Courage, Community, and War.   New York:  Viking Penguin Group.

Philbreck, Nathaniel; Philbreck, Thomas; eds.  (2007).  The Mayflower Papers Selected Writings of Colonial New England.  New York:  Penguin Group.

Roser, Susan E.  (1995).  Mayflower Increasings 2nd Edition.  Baltimore:  Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.

Stratton, Eugene Aubrey.  (1986).  Plymouth Colony Its History & People 1620-1691.  Salt Lake City:  Ancestry Publishing.

(The text of The Mayflower Compact, by which the Pilgrims intended to be ruled, signed by 41 of 50 male passengers shortly before landfall on 11 Nov 1620.)

THE MAYFLOWER PILGRIMS WHO DIED THE FIRST WINTER AT PLYMOUTH IN 1620/1

MEN:

John Allerton, Richard Britteridge, Robert Carter, James Chilton, Richard Clarke, John Crackstone Sr., Thomas English, Moses Fletcher, Edward Fuller, William Holbeck, John Langmore, Edmund Margesson, Christoper Martin, William Mullins, Degory Priest, John Rigsdale, Thomas Rogers, Elias Story, Edward Thompson, Edward Tilley, John Tilley, Thomas Tinker, John Turner, William White, Roger Wilder, Thomas Williams.

WOMEN:

Mary (Norris) Allerton, Dorothy (May) Bradbury, the wife of James Chilton, Sarah Eaton, the wife of Edward Fuller, Mary (Prower) Martin, Alice Mullins, Alice Rigsdale, Rose Standish, Ann (Cooper) Tilley, Joan (Hurst) Tilley, the wife of Thomas Tinker, Elizabeth (Barker) Winslow.

CHILDREN:

William Butten, John Hooke (age 14), Ellen More (age 8), Jasper More (age 7), Mary More (age 6), Joseph Mullins, Solomon Prower, the son of Thomas Tinker, two sons of John Turner.

26 men, 13 women, and 10 children didn’t survive the first winter at Plymouth.  They came seeking freedom to practice their own religion, and being unprepared for the harsh New England winter, 49 of “these poor distressed people” died.  The given and maiden names for 3 of the married women are unknown, as are the given names of 3 of the children. Surviving the first winter didn’t mean the Pilgrims were out of danger: in the following spring of 1621, Governor John Carver died, and his wife Katherine that summer.

The First Amendment shouldn’t be taken for granted.  The motives of these 49 Martyrs who died at Plymouth were Spiritual rather than Temporal, unlike the earlier settlements at Jamestown and New Amsterdam.  The story of the Mayflower is one of incredible courage.  We honor the Pilgrims by maintaining religious freedom for all as a core American value.

The following map of the Cape Cod area is from:

Huiginn, E.J.V.  (1914.)  The Graves Of Myles Standish And Other Pilgrims Revised and Enlarged. Beverly, MA:  The Author.

Plymouth Rock II

The Chipman family has long had an interest in genealogy.  Between Handley Chipman’s manuscript of ca. 1790 and Richard Manning Chipman’s pioneering efforts in the second half of the 19 th century, there’s this item, sent to me by the late William G. Chipman of Greenville, MS.

Dated 1832, it’s in the collection of the Public Archives of Nova Scotia, and was written by Handley Chipman’s son Stephen Chipman.  The following are extracts from this manuscript (call no. MG100 Vol. 120 #53a).  Stephen Chipman’s portion consists of 19 pages, with an additional 2 by other writers, and 2 photocopies of an old newspaper clipping concerning celebrations at Plymouth in honor of the Mayflower.

____________________

“Sketch of the History and Genealogy of the Chipman Family (particularly the branch who settled in Nova Scotia) descended from John Chipman The Pioneer.  Written by Stephen Chipman Annapolis, N.S.  1832 –

“The C.’s from my G.G. Father [John Chipman who m. Hope Howland] are spread into N.S. New Brunswick, the Northern States Virginia & Vermont &c.

“May they still be blessed as heretofore, still experience Gods peculiar Providence; and may we all at last join as one in the holy train of our dear Redeemer in singing his praises.

“I begin … with my GG Father John C. who came to New England when young, from Dorsetshire England In the reign of Charles first, married a daughter of Mr Howland who was the first settler who landed at Plymouth in 1620, being the first to spring from the boat belonging to the first ship that came to P[lymouth] with settlers, being driven from their native country, by the persecutions against liberty of Conscience in the exercise of their religion.

“The stone Mr. Howland landed on I have been informed has been removed to the third street of the town of P[lymouth] to keep in memory the immigration of their forefathers and the day is celebrated by public thanksgiving and rejoicing.

“In consequence of this marriage the opulent & honored family of the Howlands in New England are related to us – He had ten children … was an elder in Minister Russells church Barnstable Cape Cod, and died aged 88 years.”

[Material in brackets mine.]


________________________

The tale of John Howland stepping onto Plymouth Rock is dramatic, but is it true?

In 1863, Abraham Lincoln established the holiday of Thanksgiving, enshrining the Mayflower Pilgrims as our most recognizable national icons.  Everyone loves the Pilgrims because Thanksgiving kicks off a four day weekend.

The story of Plymouth Rock dates to 1741, about 120 years after the Pilgrims landed.  95 year old Thomas Faunce claimed he’d been told by his father, who’d immigrated to Plymouth in 1623, that the boulder now known as Plymouth Rock was where the Pilgrims had first landed.  So in 1774, the Sons of Liberty, led by Col. Theophilus Cotton, arrived in Plymouth and dug the Rock from beneath a pier.  While attempting to load it onto a waggon, it split in half.

They left half of it where it lay and deposited the other half in the town square beside a Liberty Pole.  In 1834, the piece of the Rock in the Plymouth town square, much abused by souvenir-seeking tourists, was moved to Pilgrim Hall.  In the process, the Rock fell to the ground and once again split in two.  Cemented back together, it was mounted in front of the Hall.

Just before the Civil War, the Pilgrim Society bought the wharf containing the other half of the Rock.  They didn’t want two competing Plymouth Rocks, so in 1880 the half ensconced at Pilgrim Hall was transported back to the waterfront and the halves were reunited.

As Nathaniel Philbrick puts it:  “Today Plymouth is a mixture of the sacred and the kitsch, a place of period houses and tourist traps, where the Mayflower II sits quietly beside the ornate granite edifice that now encloses the mangled remains of Plymouth Rock.”

John Howland was from Fenstanton, Huntingdonshire, the son of Henry and Margaret Howland.  He took passage on the Mayflower as Gov. John Carver’s indentured servant.  As Fate would have it, his employers, the Carvers, died in the first spring and summer, and Howland had no masters—and perhaps received a portion of the Carver estate.

Howland is best known for being blown overboard during the Mayflower passage.  Though submerged, he held onto a halyard and was hauled to safety.  If anyone was going to step onto Plymouth Rock, Howland was a natural candidate, probably eager to feel terra firma beneath his feet.

The story isn’t mentioned in contemporary accounts.  While I’m certain Mayflower passengers did step onto the boulder (it was difficult to ignore), whether it was the first spot stepped onto at the landing may be more myth than history.

____________________________________

Chipman historians refer to our immigrant ancestor John Chipman as “apprenticed” to his cousin Richard Derby.  He was in fact Derby’s indentured servant, probably employed as a carpenter.  That may have endeared him to John Howland, who allowed Chipman to marry his daughter Hope.

John Chipman had two sisters, “Hannor” and “Tumsum,” of whom nothing is known.  It’s possible that some relations of his still exist in Britain.  The Chipman home was at Brinspittle about five miles from Dorchester in Dorsetshire.  John’s father Thomas owned property worth 40-50 pounds per year and held by entail in Whitechurch Canonicorum, a strange place where the church had a grope-hole to touch saintly relics.  Domesday Book, compiled 1086/7,  records the church at “Whitchurch Canonicorum” as held by the Church of Saint-Wandrille, so it was a place of some antiquity.   Of course Thomas managed to lose the property in an annuity or loan scheme, and so began the saga of the Chipmans in North America.

Without going into details gleaned from the meagre sources, suffice it to say Whitechurch Canonicorum was the actual home of the Chipman family, Brinspittle being merely the place Thomas Chipman was dumped after the loss of his property.  John Chipman’s mother (name unknown) was living when John set sail for the New World.

The Dorset History Centre has significant holdings relating to Whitechurch Canonicorum, and those records should be searched.  A check of the UK “a2a” database for the period of 1450-1650 shows no mention of a Chipman at Whitechurch Canonicorum.  Some of the parish of Whitechurch Canonicorum and the related manor of Marshwood Vale found its way into the hands of Queen Mary, who on 24 Oct 1553 made a grant to Gertrude, Marchioness of Exeter.  The manor of Whitechurch Canonicorum can be traced in records dating well into the medieval period.

Several “a2a” entries show a Chapman family living in Whitechurch Canonicorum prior to the time John Chipman emigrated to Plymouth ca. 1637, and this item contains some family details:

A lease for 99 years dated 3 Oct 1638 between Thomas Chapman, aka William Chapman *, of Whitchurch, Dorset, yeoman, son of Thomas Chapman, son of Thomas Chapman late of Haydon, Dorset, and the estate of William Vinacombe the elder and the estate of William Love alias Megges; land located in Axminster, Devonshire; fine 10 pounds.

[* The name by which he was usually known.]

“Chipman” is a spelling variation of “Chapman,” so an alleged connection to a “de Chippenham” family living at the time of William the Conqueror is fantasy.  In English records even simple surnames have many variations—of the same person from record to record or within the same record.  The search for the truth about Thomas Chipman, father of John Chipman,  should focus on localities rather than the exact spelling of the surname.  Since our family was of yeoman rather than gentry stock, extending the known pedigree may prove difficult.

“Chipman” might just have been Elder John Chipman’s preferred spelling of his surname, his ancestors having been known as “Chapman” or “Chepman,” etc.  The tale of his father Thomas losing a substantial property in Whitechurch Canonicorum remains to be independently documented.  It first appears in a deposition given 2 Mar 1641/2 by Ann Hinde, wife of William Hoskins, at Plymouth, and is repeated and amplified in a statement of John Chipman dated 8 Feb 1657/8, also at Plymouth.  It’s an “emigration tale”—and many families have one.  What is not stated, but probably the truth, is that Thomas Chipman lost his property due to indebtedness.  It’s quite a coincidence to find a Thomas Chapman at Whitchurch in Dorset in the precise time when these alleged events transpired.  Is it possible that Thomas Chapman, who in 1638 took a 99 year lease on land in Devonshire, was John Chipman’s father?

I’ve outlined in “Page f.” the descent of Mary Minor, wife of James Chipman (grandson of John and Hope) from Aethelred II, King of England.  The connection with the Giffards through whom the descent passes had some standing with the Chipman family.  After the death of Hope (Howland) Chipman, John Chipman married Ruth (Sargent) Winslow Bourne, daughter of Rev. William Sargent.  Sargent’s 3rd great-grandparents were John Giffard and Agnes Winslow, an ancestry shared with Alice Freeman, Mary (Minor) Chipman’s 2nd great-grandmother.

John Chipman had no children by Ruth, but following his death on 8 Apr 1708 she had him interred in the Bourne cemetary plot in the Sandwich Old Burying Ground.

His first wife Hope (Howland) Chipman is buried in Lothrop Hill Cemetary in Barnstable.  Her grave marker is the second oldest grave marker on Cape Cod.

Hope Chipman tombstone

rPAD / Fiddler on the Hoof (The Lost Jews of Khazaria) / Otto becomes Great

•June 20, 2016 • Comments Off on rPAD / Fiddler on the Hoof (The Lost Jews of Khazaria) / Otto becomes Great

Anonymous and Master Roger; Rady, Martyn; et al.  (2010.) Anonymous Notary of King Bela The Deeds of the Hungarians / Epistle to the Sorrowful Lament upon the Destruction of the Kingdom of Hungary by the Tatars.  Budapest–New York:  Central European University Press.

Brook, Kevin Alan.  (2006).  The Jews of Khazaria Second Edition.  Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.

Dercsenyi, Dezso; ed,; West, Alick; trans.; et. al.  (1970).  The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle. New York: Taplinger Publishing Company.

Golden, Peter B.; Ben-Shammai, Haggai; Rona-tas, Andras; eds.  (2007).  The World of the Khazars New Perspectives Selected Papers from the Jerusalem 1999 International Khazar Colloquium. Leiden, The Netherlands:  Koninklijke Brill. 

Simon of Keza; Veszpremy, Laszlo; et. al.  (1999).  Simon of Keza The Deeds of the Hungarians. Budapest–New York:  Central European University Press.

Weis, Frederick Lewis; Sheppard Jr., Walter Lee; Beall, William R.; Beall, Kaleen E. (2004). Ancestral Roots Of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 Lineages from Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and other Historical Individuals Eighth Edition.  Baltimore:  Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.  [Line 243:  contains errors]

(2) Arpad (ca. 845–907 C.E.) is the legendary founder of Hungary, a progenitor of princes and kings into the 14th century.  (2) Arpad claimed descent from Attila the Hun, but the Huns are ancestors of the Bulgarians.

There is, in connection with (2) Arpad’s son (3) Zoltan, a historical mystery which continues to occupy historians and anthropologists:  was (3) Zoltan’s wife the daughter of the Jewish ruler of a long forgotten empire, the Khazars? The Khazars are known to have adopted Judaism, although exactly when is unknown. Converts were primarily the upper classes.

The events discussed here took place during the reigns of the Khazar kings Aaron I or Menahem. The Hungarians, however, did not claim descent from a Khazar king.

The Khazar royal genealogy is based on a letter written ca. 960 by the Khazar king Joseph to Hasdai bin Shaprut, foreign secretary to the caliph Abd ar-Rahman III, viz.:

King Joseph wrote that the Khazars conquered the land of the Bulgarians and drove them from it.

The founder of the dynasty was Bulan.  At some point Bulan was followed by his descendant (1) Obadiah, his son (2) Hezekiah, his son (3) Manasseh, (4) Hanukkah brother of Obadiah, his son (5) Isaac, his son (6) Zebulun, his son (7) Moses, his son (8) Nissi, his son (9) Aaron I, his son (10) Menahem, his son (11) Benjamin, his son (12) Aaron II, his son (13) Joseph.

Obadiah’s line failed after the third generation, and the succession devolved upon Obadiah’s brother Hanukkah.  For chronological reasons I question Hanukkah as successor to Manasseh. According to Joseph the royal succession in Khazaria followed the rule of primogeniture in the male line.  It’s more likely that the royal succession devolved upon descendants of Hanukkah.   Hanukkah is the name of a Jewish festival—its use as a given name is odd, but evidently it was so employed.  The exact relationship of Obadiah to Bulan is unclear, so perhaps the early part of the  royal genealogy is mythical.  Joseph claimed the Khazars descended from Japheth, the same ancestor named in the mythical Hungarian genealogy (see below).

While Joseph credits Bulan with the introduction of Judaism into Khazaria, it was Obadiah who promoted strict observance.  If Joseph’s account is accurate, then the Khazar conversion to Judaism took place much earlier than the early 9th century as posited by some scholars.  Joseph can be expected to have knowledge of that pivotal event.

The ethnic makeup of the Khazars is another issue.  The so-called “Schecter Letter” indicates that Jews from Persia and Armenia fled persecution and intermarried with the nomadic Khazars, who thus became descendants of Jews who had originated in Judea. That would explain the Khazar “conversion” as merely an expression of ethnicity. Even if partially myth, the Khazars must have had some contact with Judaism prior to their conversion, and there’s nothing implausible about refugees intermarrying with an indigenous population.  Every empire required an educated administrative class—bureaucrats—and perhaps the conduit of Judaism into the Khazar upper classes was through Jews who served in the Khazar royal administration and under Khazar nobility. It isn’t an unknown process:  in the colony of Virginia men who were literate and educated formed an administrative elite.

(Page from The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle.)

I’ve filled in dates for Gens. (2) through (7) to give the reader some idea of the chronology. Although many of the dates are estimates, there’s no chronological problem for this line.  For the Khazar portion of the line, Gens. 2, 3, & 4 are crucial.

THEORY ONE:  (3) Zoltan was older than his Khazar bride.  He could have had another relationship before her.  It was some time before the marriage to the Khazar woman was consummated, and even longer before there was issue of the marriage.  His marriage to her wouldn’t have precluded other relationships.  (4) Taksony is the only known offspring of (3) Zoltan, but (3) Zoltan may have had other issue of his Khazar wife who didn’t survive or who were unimportant.  THEORY TWO:  It was a child marriage on both parts which wasn’t consummated until much later.  In both theories, it was a politically motivated marriage negotiated by (2) Arpad, a marriage which was of considerable prestige to the Hungarians who were the New Horde In Town.  / A woman of this rank was a pawn.  Looking at the marriage practices of the aristocracy, that the Khazar girl had not reached maturity when she was married off is not at all unusual. / One of the problems in this case is obtaining a useful birth year for (4) Taksony and there seems no consensus for it, the latest date being proffered by a chronicler as 931.  However, even if we are very conservative and posit the Khazar woman as reaching biological maturity in 915–920, allowing her only two decades to bear children, she still could have been bearing children beyond 931. / I believe THEORY TWO to be correct.  It’s supported by evidence, as will be seen below…..  

(2) Arpad and his son (3) Zoltan are ancestors of Diana Skipwith, viz.:

1.  ALMOS (ALMUS) OF THE HUNGARIANS>

According to tradition, Almos did not enter Pannonia, but was murdered after the defeat of the Hungarians by the Pechenegs east of the Carpathian mountains.  The manner of his death and by whom is unclear, although he may have been murdered by his own people as a consequence of the defeat.  A tragic fate for a man of miraculous birth: Hungarian folklore says Almos was the son of Eleud and a daughter of Eunodbilia named Emese.  Emese dreamed that a falcon penetrated her uterus from which burst forth a huge light emanating towards the distant parts of the world.

This imaginary royal genealogy from The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle contains the descent of Almos from biblical patriarch Noah, and forward to Almos’s son Arpad, to Arpad’s son Zoltan, and to Zoltan’s son Toxun:

Almus, Eleud, Ugeg, Ed, Chaba, Ethele, Bendekus, Turda, Scemen, Ethei, Opus, Kadicha, Berend, Zultra, Bulchu, Bolug, Zambur, Zamur, Leel, Levente, Kulche, Ompud, Miske, Mike, Beztur, Budli, Chanad, Buken, Boudofard, Farkas, Othmar, Kadar, Beler, Kear, Kewe, Keled, Dama, Bor, Hunor, Nimrod, Thana, Japheth, Noah.  Almus begot Arpad, Arpad begot Zoltan, Zoltan begot Toxun.

2.  ARPAD OF HUNGARY FOUNDER OF THE NATION ca. 845–907>

3.  ZOLTAN OF HUNGARY ca. 903–950; m. daughter of a Khazar prince (duke)>

4.  TAKSONY (TOXUN) OF HUNGARY b. 931 d. ca. early 970s>

According to The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle:

This Toxun begot Geysa and Michael, and Michael begot Ladislaus the Bald and Vazul.

5.  MIHALY (MICHAEL) DUKE d. ca. mid 990s>

6.  VASZOLY (VAZUL) DUKE  d. ca. 1037; took as concubine woman of Tatony clan>

7.  BELA I OF HUNGARY (b. ca. 1020 d. 1063); m. Rixa (Richenza) of Poland>

8.  SOPHIA OF HUNGARY>

9.  WULFHILDA OF SAXONY>

10.  JUDITH OF BAVARIA>

11.  FREDERICK III BARBAROSSA OF GERMANY FREDERICK I HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR>

12.  PHILIP II OF SWABIA TUSCANY GERMANY>

13.  MARIE OF SWABIA HOHENSTAUFFEN>

14.  MATILDA OF BRABANT>

15.  BLANCHE OF ARTOIS QUEEN REGENT OF NAVARRE COUNTESS OF LANCASTER; m. (2) Edmund “Crouchback,” Earl of Lancaster, son of King Henry III of England>

16.  HENRY OF LANCASTER>

17.  JOAN OF LANCASTER>

18.  JOHN 4th LORD MOWBRAY>

19.  ELEANOR DE MOWBRAY>

20.  IVES DE WELLES>

21.  LIONEL 6TH LORD WELLES>

22.  MARGARET DE WELLES>

23.  LIONEL DYMOKE>

24.  ALICE DYMOKE>

25.  HENRY SKIPWITH>

26.  WILLIAM SKIPWITH>

27.  HENRY SKIPWITH>

28.  DIANA SKIPWITH.

(These lines can be confusing because they encompass so many generations, and so many countries, but this line is familiar to me.  There is another line of descent via Henry III, Duke of Lourraine and Brabant, brother of 14. Matilda of Brabant, to Margaret of France, second queen of King Edward I of England.  Another line, formed by the marriage in the 8th century of a Khazar princess known as Irene to the Byzantine Emperor Constantine V, appears to have died out.)

(Khazar coinage.  The symbols are runes.)

The Hungarians, in the manner of warrior horsemen indigenous to the region, attacked their neighbors in the quest for booty.  There was no TV, so you made your own entertainment. Sometimes you won and sometimes you got your ass kicked.

Hungarians fondly recall the early Arpads for their incursions into the West, especially Italy, although not all raids went as planned.  Disaster struck on  10 Aug 955 when Otto I of Germany crushed the Hungarians at the Battle of Lechfeld, near Augsburg in Bavaria. Thousands of fleeing Hungarians were slaughtered or burned to death.  Otto I didn’t want a resurgent threat from the East. The defeat marked the end of Hungarian adventures in the West.

[Throne of Charlemagne in Aachen Cathedral, Germany.  The throne is made of marble.  Otto I The Great (912–973 C.E.) was crowned King of Germany there on 7 Aug 936.  Side view with the throne facing to the left.  Six steps lead to the throne itself.

(7) King Bela I of Hungary died on 11 Sep 1063 when his throne collapsed.  Looking at this structure, formed primarily of stone, which placed the ruler above everyone else, one can see that a fall could cause serious injury.  Evidently (7) Bela I’s throne was made of wood.  When it collapsed, the king fell from the structure upon which it was placed.  Given the Machiavellian politics of the age, one wonders if his throne had been sabotaged.  A clue to this mystery is contained in The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle, which states that during a pagan rebellion in the reign of (7) Bela I, “The common people chose for themselves leaders and erected for them a wooden stand, from which they could be seen and heard of men.”  (7) Bela I suppressed the rebellion, and “the leaders they killed by throwing them down from the high stands….”  I think it quite possible the king was murdered in retaliation for his brutal suppression of the pagan rebellion.

 I have a descent from Otto I The Great through his daughter Luitgarde, wife of Conrad, Duke of Lorraine.  (15) Blanche of Artois has another descent viOtto II, king of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor and Theophanu, but not of Otto III, whose line failed; she was also a descendant of the Salian Dynasty Emperors Conrad II, Henry III, and Henry IV.]

(Artist’s rendering of the German and Hungarian clash at the Battle of Lechfeld.  Arpad battle flag is on the left.  Note the severed body parts.  The Hungarians appear to be wearing a form of “fez,” while the Germans are in full armor.  The Hungarian warlords Lel and Bulscu attempted to flee but were captured and hanged by Otto I.  The victory at Lechfeld assured Otto I’s election as Holy Roman Emperor.)

(3) Zoltan’s exact position within the Hungarian polity is unclear, but all subsequent rulers of the house of Arpad are descended from (3) Zoltan’s son (4) Taksony.  (4) Taksony is said to have married a Lady of the “Cumans,” who is believed to have been Pecheneg.

(Zoltan of Hungary.)

Given the meagre sources, one wishes for more documentation, but the tale of (3) Zoltan’s Khazar wife has some support in a well established practice of the Middle Ages: conquerors often co-opted a daughter of the vanquished royal house in order to prop up their regime.

William the Conqueror, himself the illegitimate son of a Duke of Normandy, married Matilda of Flanders, who may have been a legitimate descendant of the Dukes of Normandy.  William’s son King Henry I married Matilda of Scotland, whose mother was a lineal descendant of the old Anglo-Saxon royal house.  King Henry V married a French princess to solidify his claim to the French crown (which only briefly materialized). Henry Tudor, who in 1485 at Bosworth defeated the last Plantagenet king Richard III, quickly married Elizabeth of York, daughter of the Yorkist king Edward IV.  Not coincidentally, Elizabeth of York was also Richard III’s niece.

The Deeds of the Hungarians (Gesta Hungarorum), written in the late 12th or early 13th centuries, has the following to say regarding (3) Zoltan’s bride and her family (Rady 2010):  

Page 33:  “The land between the Tisza and Igyfon wood, that lies toward Transylvania, from the Mures River up to the Somes River had been occupied by Prince Marot, whose grandson was called Menmarot by the Hungarians, for he had many concubines; and the peoples that are called Kozar inhabited that land.”

 [This area is a great distance to the southeast of Moravia, and thus was not a Moravian dependency.  See map below.]

(This map gives a general idea of the area under discussion, which is in the center to the east.  As is evident, this area is not part of Moravia, which is to the NE.  Poland is E of Moravia.  Click on map to enlarge it.)

Pages 51–53, 57:

“After spending several days, Prince Arpad, haven taken the advice of his noblemen, sent envoys to the castle of Biharia, asking him, by right of his forbear, King Attila, to give him the land from the Somes River to the border of Nyirseg, up to the Mezes Gates, and he sent him gifts, just as he had previously sent to Salan, prince of Titel.

“The envoys of Prince Arpad … coming to the castle of Biharia, they greeted Prince Menmarot and presented to him the gifts that their prince had sent.  Then, relaying to him the message of Prince Arpad, they requested the land which we have named before. Prince Menmarot received them kindly and, enriched with diverse gifts, he ordered them homewards.  Still, he so replied, saying: ‘Tell Arpad, Prince of Hungary, your lord, that we owe him as a friend to a friend in all things he needs because a guest is a person short in many things.  But the land that he seeks of our grace we will in no way surrender while we live.’

“Then Osbo and Velek, the envoys of Prince Arpad, hastened speedily to their lord, and, upon arrival, reported to their lord, Prince Arpad, the message of Menmarot.  Upon hearing this, Prince Arpad and his nobles were moved by anger and they immediately ordered an army to be sent against him.

“Having been granted leave by Prince Arpad, they marched off with no small army…

“… almost all of the inhabitants of the land surrendered of their own will, and … gave their sons as hostages lest they should suffer any harm.

“Having heard this, so great a fear overwhelmed Menmarot that he did not dare raise his hand….

“… they reached the castle of Satu Mare and besieging the castle over three days of fighting they won victory.  On the fourth day, entering the castle, they sent those warriors of Menmarot that they could catch there to the most foul depths of the dungeon, taken in iron fetters, and they took the sons of those dwelling there as hostages.”

Page 65:

“… with victory won, they returned to Prince Arpad, subduing the whole people from the Somes River to the Cris River, and none dared raise a hand against them.  Menmarot, their prince, preferred to make ready his escape to Greece than to proceed against them…. And then, marching on, they reached Szeghalom and they wanted to cross the Koros/Cris River there, in order to fight against Menmarot, but Menmarot’s warriors came and denied them the crossing.”

Pages 109–113:

“That year [the destruction of Pannonia], Prince Arpad begot a son, by the name of Zolta, and great joy was made among the Hungarians, and for many days the prince and his noblemen like the lambs of ewes before rams.  Several days later, Prince Arpad and his noblemen sent by common counsel an army against Menmarot, Prince of Bihar…  All the Szekely, who were previously the peoples of King Attila … came to make peace and, of their own will, gave their sons as hostages along with diverse gifts, and undertook to fight in the vanguard … against Menmarot.

“… Prince Menmarot, having left a host of warriors in the castle of Biharia, betook himself and his wife and daughter to the groves of Igyfon.   … when the Hungarians and Szekely had filled in the castle’s moats, and sought to put ladders to the wall, the warriors of Prince Menmarot … began to petition the two chief men of the army [for terms] ….

“When Menmarot heard this from messengers that had taken to flight, he became very greatly afraid and sent his envoys with diverse gifts to Osbo and Velek [Hungarian warlords] and asked them to incline to peace and to send their envoys to Prince Arpad to announce to him that Menmarot, who had before haughtily with a Bulgarian heart sent word through his envoys to Prince Arpad, refusing to give him a handful of land, was now defeated and overthrown and did not hesitate to give, through the same envoys, his realm [to Arpad], and to Zolta, son of Arpad, his daughter…. Prince Arpad, having taken counsel of his noblemen, approved and praised Menmarot’s announcement and, when he heard that Menmarot’s daughter was the same age as his son Zolta, did not refuse Menmarot’s petition and he accepted Menmarot’s daughter as Zolta’s wife, along with the realm promised him.

“… the whole army, following the orders of their lord, received the daughter of Menmarot after the betrothal …. then … returned with great honor and joy to Prince Arpad, and the prince and his great men proceeded to receive them and they led the daughter of Menmarot to the prince’s house with honor, as befitted the bride of so great a prince.”

I’ve omitted most references to Arpad’s commanders.  Menmarot subsequently died without a son, and Zoltan received his realm.

1.  My first observation is that “Menmarot” is what the Hungarians called this duke (or prince): he was called “Menmarot ” because he had many concubines.  The linguistic construction of “Menmarot” contains two sections, and is undoubtedly not a literal rendition of his name.  “Men” is Bulgarian-Turkish for “great,” and “marot” is Hungarian for “Moravian,” so that “Marot,” the grandfather of “Menmarot” has been thought to be simply “the Moravian,” while “Menmarot” himself was “the Great Moravian.” “Menmarot” was “great” because he could afford many concubines, certainly a sign of wealth.  We can infer from this passage that it was “Menmarot’s ” grandfather “Marot” who established the duchy. There’s nothing amiss in the notion that “Marot” supplanted someone else.  A Khazar king ruling in this time period was “Menahem,” whose name bears a resemblance to “Menmarot.” Simon of Keza (Veszpremy 1999) mentions a certain Svatopluk, son of a Polish prince named “Marot.”  According to Simon, Svatopluk subdued “Bactra” and ruled as Emperor of the Bulgars and Moravians, ultimately conquering Pannonia as well. Simon also mentions an alternate version of this tale in which it was “Marot,” not Svatopluk, who performed these deeds.  It thus appears “Marot” was a slang Hungarian term, not meant to be taken literally, and a passage in Simon (pp. 11–15) offers a plausible solution: “But in the two hundred and first year after the flood the giant Menrot, son of Thana, of the seed of Japheth, began to construct a tower.  Ever mindful of their danger in the past, he and his kin hoped that if the flood came a second time they could escape judgement and take refuge in the tower…. After the confusion of tongues the giant entered the land of Havilah, which is now called Persia, and there he begot two sons, Hunor and Mogor, by his wife Eneth.  It was from them that the Huns, or Hungarians, took their origins.  However, it seems the giant Menrot had other wives apart from Eneth, on whom he sired many sons and daughters besides Hunor and Mogor.”  Thus the names “Marot” and “Menmarot” have their origins in Hungarian folklore.  In this context “Menmarot” meant a “wealthy and powerful adversary,” which heightened the drama of Arpad’s encounter with him.  “Marot” here doesn’t mean “Moravian” as no specific ethnicity is implied, but is a cultural allusion familiar to the Hungarians.  In the ages before the use of surnames, it was common to use a descriptor, like “Hugh the Fat,” or “Louis the Simple.”  And whatever someone was called in their native land wasn’t necessarily how they were known to their neighbors.

2.  My second observation is that the Khazar Empire had under its rule many different peoples, but the Khazar ruling elite wasn’t necessarily primarily composed of those same peoples.  In the account of wresting territory from “Menmarot,” it’s significant that “Memnarot” characterizes his initial refusal to cede land to Arpad as “haughtily with a Bulgarian heart.”  This further cements “Menmarot’s” identity as a Khazar nobleman:  the Khazars had ejected the Bulgarians.  The Khazar adoption of Judaism may have occurred within the life span of “Marot,” but if the account of the Khazar king Joseph is correct, the conversion may have transpired in the 7th century.  If so, it seems likely “Marot” had some ethnic Jewish ancestry, as “Marot” would have been born in the early 9th century, well after the conversion.

3.  Third, as with any empire, the Khazar Empire experienced internal dissension, and its boundaries shifted with the ebb and flow of imperial fortune.  It seems “Menmarot” was a border lord, what the English would term a “marcher lord.” How else could his lands be incorporated into Hungary?

4.  Fourth, child marriages among the aristocracy, for dynastic purposes, were as common here as in the later Medieval period. The Khazar girl was sent to live in Arpad’s household.  (3) Zoltan and his Khazar bride were probably little more than children.

(2) Arpad would want this marriage to help stabilize his conquest of “Menmarot’s” territory.  I mention two THEORIES above, and THEORY TWO fits the evidence we have perfectly.  If (2) Arpad and his warlords were harassing Khazar territory, there would be nothing unusual in (2) Arpad marrying his son (3) Zoltan to an elite Khazar woman. Historians say (2) Arpad conquered territory to which he linked (3) Zoltan in marriage, but was it the Khazars?  The phrase “the peoples that are called Kozar inhabited that land” indicates that it was Khazar territory.  The subtext is (2) Arpad was bought off by “Menmarot,” and part of the tribute was a high status bride for (3) Zoltan.  She was not a daughter of the royal house—it’s unlikely the Khazar king would bestow a daughter on the upstart Hungarians.  But she was the daughter of an important noble, and an important noble might be expected to share the religion of his ruler, to whom the noble’s family may have been linked by blood. 

(2) Arpad didn’t conquer the the Khazar Empire itself.  It survived into the latter half of the 10th century, when pressure from the Kievan Rus and Byzantines caused its collapse.  My understanding is that like the Byzantine Empire after the sack of Constantinople in 1204, some Khazar successor states were established.  Perhaps much of the Khazar elite who fled the fall of their empire ruled in those areas.

I base this portrayal of the situation on how these people behaved—it’s a common pattern.  The events transpired well after the conversion of the Khazar elite to Judaism. The Deeds of the Hungarians contains elements of fantasy, but this tale I think is a skeletal truth underlying the boasting. Some scholars agree. By the time The Deeds of the Hungarians was composed, the Khazar Empire had long succumbed, and the author or authors had no reason to fabricate this specific identity for the wife of a pivotal figure in Hungarian history. A more exalted persona could have been invented for her.  As a nation in the process of coalescing, a marriage to a noblewoman of a long-established empire would have been of considerable prestige to the Hungarians.

Although there had been Christian activity in the region for centuries prior to 1000 C.E., St. Stephen’s reign heralds the official conversion of Hungary to Christianity.  Therefore, in the period of the first half of the 10th century, the Hungarian ruling elite would have had no objection on religious grounds to merging the Hungarian royal line with a Jewish Khazar woman.

The overarching theme is that elites intermarried, and marriages were used to seal relationships. Realpolitik: the politics of sex.

[As this map shows, the Khazar Empire was essentially a buffer state between eastern Europe and the Byzantine Empire.  Note that Magyaren (Hungary) is adjacent to the western border of the Khazar Empire.  Much of what we know about the Khazars is found in Byzantine sources.  A Russian archaeological team claims to have discovered the Khazar capitol of Itil, once thought to have sunk beneath the Caspian Sea.  The team has identified Itil at a site near the Russian village of Samosdelka, just north of the Caspian.  Of the Khazars, the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII (905–959 AD) wrote:  “Nine regions of Chazaria are adjacent to Alania, and the Alan can, if he be so minded, plunder these and so cause great damage and dearth among the Chazars:  for from these nine regions come all the livelihood and plenty of Chazaria.”  Click on map to enlarge it.]

The paucity of sources and the chaotic political scene in Hungary prevent absolute confidence that (7) Bela I of Hungary was the son of (6) Vaszoly.  (7) Bela I and two brothers, Andrew and Levente, were evidently sons of (6) Vaszoly by a concubine. That’s a problem for this line.  There’s a difference between a concubine and a mistress: a concubine is a woman who cohabits with the man (a wife in all but name), while a mistress could be any woman with whom the man has (presumably) regular sexual relations.  Putative paternity is more likely to be correct if the mother is a concubine.

Modern historians accept this version of (7) Bela I’s origins, rejecting claims that he was the son of someone else, claims that were probably rooted in Hungarian religious politics rather than reality, as the following passage shows:

According to Simon of Keza, referenced to Veszpremy (1999), Page 125:

“It is sometimes claimed  that the brothers were the sons of Duke Vazul by a girl from the Tatony clan and not his sons by true wedlock, and that the Tatony family derive their noble status from this connection.  This tradition is certainly baseless and a quite mischievous invention.  The fact is that, being from Scythia, the family were of noble origin in any case, irrespective of the fact that the brothers were the sons of Ladislas the Bald.”

An editor’s note to this quotation states the brothers were the sons of (6) Vaszoly and concubinatus was an accepted form of marriage in 11th century Hungary.  All subsequent kings of the house of Arpad were descendants of (4) Taksony, as was Ladislas the Bald.  Attributing the brothers to Ladislas the Bald was Simon of Keza’s invention to sweep the concubine under the tapestry, and he claims the Tatony family were of noble origin in any case.  Another interpretation is that Ladislas the Bald was claimed as father of the three brothers because (6) Vaszoly had been humiliated by being blinded (see below).   Blinding was a common method of rendering the hapless victim incapable of ruling.  In any event, the brothers are presumed to be descendants of (3) Zoltan and his Khazar wife, and that’s how historians view it.

Several rebellions to restore paganism in Hungary were defeated. (6) Vaszoly was the cousin of Stephen I (ca. 975–1038), the first Christian king of Hungary. Stephen suspected (6) Vaszoly of pagan sympathies and (6) Vaszoly was blinded, but by whom is unclear. The chroniclers whitewashed Stephen I’s involvement because of his position as a revered Hungarian saint.  Andrew was eventually crowned king of Hungary, and subsequently dethroned by forces loyal to (7) Bela I.  So whatever the truth is regarding the paternity of the three brothers, the Hungarians believed they were of royal lineage because they accepted two of them as kings.  Hungary had adopted Christianity, but wasn’t entirely Christianized.  Under paganism, the circumstances of (7) Bela I’s birth would have aroused no comment.

In the case of (8) Sophia of Hungary, for chronological reasons she is presumed to be the daughter of (7) Bela I by his first wife, the daughter of King Mieszko II of Poland.  In a Saxon source she is called “sister of the Hungarian King Ladizlai.”  King Ladislaus I of Hungary (b. ca. 1040 d. 1095) was the son of (7) Bela I.  It has been suggested that Sophia may have been the daughter of (7) Bela I  by another wife, or was the daughter of another Hungarian king.  Scholars accept (8) Sophia of Hungary as the daughter of (7) Bela I by his Polish wife.  The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle states that (7) Bela I married King Mieszko II’s daughter in Poland and fathered sons Geysa and Ladislaus while there, and after his return to Hungary fathered his son Lampert and daughters. So in this the scholars appear to be correct.  Some genealogists are only happy when everything means nothing.

In reviewing this line (1) to (8), there is nothing in it which would arouse suspicion.  It’s a typical scenario played out in a region that even by the standards of the age was exceptionally volatile. Overall I accept this line as “proved by preponderance of the evidence.”  There’s evidence supporting every step in the line.  If asked if I believe the line to be true, my answer is “Yes,” but some of the details are sketchy. 

Of King Mieszko II, an 1835 history has this to say, in the lurid prose of popular historians:

“Indolence, profusion, and debauchery, were his ruling propensities.  Ulric duke of Bohemia, who had during the life of his benefactor Boleslaus [father of Mieszko II] maintained a seeming allegiance, on the accession of Micislaus [Mieszko II]  threw off the mask, and caused the Polish garrisons in his country to be barbarously massacred while they supposed themselves in security.  The success of this measure inspired the Moravians, Prussians, and Saxons with confidence; and the Polish garrisons were put to death or carried into slavery in several places; whilst the governors of the revolted provinces, aided by the German states, assumed the supreme power.  For a considerable time, Micislaus remained indifferent to these disasters, as well as to the murmurs of his subjects, and appeared entirely absorbed in voluptuousness and indolence.  The fear of a rebellion at home at length aroused him from his pleasures; and he unwillingly put himself at the head of the Polish army, amongst whom the courage excited by Boleslaus was not yet extinguished. Accompanied by three Hungarian princes, he entered Pomerania, which province was quickly compelled to acknowledge his sovereignty.  He rewarded Bela, one of the Hungarians, who had overcome the barbarian general in single combat, with the hand of his daughter and the government of Pomerania.  But, satisfied with this success, Micislaus the Idle abandoned the prosecution of the war against the other provinces, and again shut himself up in his palace.  Here he indulged without intermission in the excesses so congenial to his disposition, until he was seized of a frenzy which terminated with his death [on 10 May 1034].  It is recorded, however, to the credit of this monarch, that he divided the country into palatinates for the more speedy administration of justice, and founded a bishopric.”

Mieszko’s widow Rixa, regent of the kingdom, became a tyrant, and an armed insurrection chased her out of Poland.  The nation then degenerated into a period of anarchy.  Rixa (or Richenza) had deep ancestry of her own:  she was the granddaughter of Otto II, king of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor, by Theophanu, d. 15 Jun 991, niece of Byzantine Emperor John I Tsimices, and was the 2nd great-granddaughter of Rudolph II, king of Burgundy.

(Icon of Holy Roman Emperor Otto II and Empress Theophanu.  Otto II and Theophanu were married in St. Peter’s Basilica by Pope John XIII on 14 Apr 972.  Otto II d. of malaria in Rome on 7 Dec 983, and is buried in St. Peter’s Basilica, the only Holy Roman Emperor to be buried there.)

[Sarcophagus of Empress Theophanu in the Church of St. Pantaleon, Cologne, Germany.  Theophanu’s parentage is unknown.  Otto I had requested a Byzantine princess born to the purple (i.e., a daughter born during the reign of her father) for his son Otto II.  The Germans initially grumbled when presented with Theophanu, a niece of the Emperor John I Tzimisces, on the grounds that she was not related to the previous Macedonian dynasty.  This indicates that Theophanu was not related to Tzimisces’ second wife Theodora, daughter of the Emperor Constantine VII.  In the event, the marriage was of some prestige to the Germans and Tzimisces as well.)

The Khazars disappeared, absorbed into the Eastern European ethnic stew.  The Khazar elite practiced Judaism, but were they ethnic Jews?  Getting an unequivocal answer is difficult.  One supposes the Khazar elite intermarried with (co-opted) ethnic Jews in order to legitimate the identity of the elite.

But were the Khazar upper classes overlords of an indigenous populace much as the Norman warrior class were overlords of the Anglo-Saxons?  Some historians agree the Khazar elite differed ethnically and linguistically from their subject peoples.  One trend in the warrior class in the Medieval period is its desire to distance itself from the ordinary mass of people.  Thus Judaism would be a sign of status or class that differentiated the elite from the masses.

In this scenario, at any given time we might see Jewish Khazars who actually numbered in the thousands, rather than tens or hundreds of thousands. A very small group:  the warrior elite, the administrative elite, and the royal family.  Khazar Judaism was not just religion, but something perhaps approaching an order of chivalry.  The psychology behind the Khazar conversion is the identification by the Khazar elite with the epic events of the Old Testament rather than the proselytizing inclusiveness of Christianity. The Khazar Jewish elite did not intend to share their religion with the masses.  The wife of (3) Zoltan would be of this elite class.  Nonetheless Judaism may have trickled into the lower classes.

And as the Norman subjection of England illustrates, during the Medieval period it was possible for a well-armed and highly organized military to control a much larger population.  In any military organization there are ranks, and the supposition that Judaism was the pursuit of the Khazar elite doesn’t mean they could not command troops who were not Jewish.

A few final observations:

(a)  The Khazars at some point had a dual power sharing arrangement between the king, a symbol and social leader of the state, and the “bek,” who commanded the military. This system reminds one of the situation toward the end of the Merovingian period in dark-age Francia in which the “Mayors of the Palace” controlled the military. Ultimately, the “Mayor of the Palace” overthrew the king and the functions were united in one person.

(b)  Religious fervor is not a constant, and observance can rise and fall over the centuries. Constantine Zuckerman dates the Khazar conversion to ca. 861, but I think that date is much too late.  It would make the Khazar king Joseph’s letter completely unreliable.  In favoring a late date for the conversion,  Zuckerman wants to explain why Judaism did not penetrate to the lower levels of Khazar society, but I think perhaps he doesn’t understand the need which Judaism fulfilled for the Khazars.  That the use of Jewish symbols on Khazar objects date to a certain time doesn’t mean the Khazar “conversion” must date to that time.  See (d).

(c)  The sources contradict one another for a variety of reasons, the two principal causes being:

       (1)  They had passed through a number of hands.

       (2)   The writing of history in those times having as a main objective the illustration of a moral point, causing the author to adjust the “facts” to fit in with that objective.

(d)  One account of the Khazar conversion which may have a kernel of truth is that an early Khazar Commander-in-Chief (a “bek”?) married a Jewish woman called Serah, who pointed out to him that he was Jewish, and should undertake the study of his true religion.  The story, while undoubtedly romantic, has at its basis a common pattern in which royal women brought into their households religious personnel and retainers: the wife who civilizes a powerful, but crude, husband. This tale is echoed in the story of St. Margaret, who “reformed” the loose Christianity at the court of her husband, King Malcolm III of Scotland.

We try to sift through the sources for a layer of truth, what makes sense and what does not. However, the identity of Zoltan’s wife as being Khazar is not intertwined with the issue of the chronology of the Khazar conversion to Judaism.  One of the aspects we look at are patterns of behavior among elites—without ignoring cultural variations.  By the time of Zoltan’s betrothal, the Khazar conversion had transpired well in the past, regardless of what date is affixed for it, and I believe the Khazar elite had assimilated ethnic Jews long before that.

Some “Khazar history” is flagrant anti-Semitism, but the Brook 2006 is genuinely useful and should not be confused with racist rants.  It’s surprising how much Khazar history Brook has pieced together from various sources.

However, Brook did not have the Anonymous 2010 translation, which makes clear that “Menmarot” was the Hungarian term for the father of Zoltan’s wife; he was so called because he had many concubines.  The name is actually linked to a giant in Hungarian folklore who had many wives, so that all that may be deduced from the name is the large number of concubines Menmarot kept and that he was powerful.  The chronicler notes that when Arpad’s forces showed up on Menmarot’s doorstep, “Menmarot, their prince, preferred to make ready his escape to Greece than proceed against them.”  By Greece is meant Byzantium.  Probably what we have here is a confused history which implies an area that once had been ruled by the “Romans” (another reference to Byzantium), and a succession of overlords, but given the geography, positing Menmarot as a Khazar prince (meaning a semi-autonomous duke) seems the most logical explanation.  For obvious reasons (being the first to be attacked in an invasion), border areas were rather fluid, and their lords had considerable discretionary power.  Menmarot was called the prince of Bihar, and after Menmarot capitulated, Arpad allowed him to retain possession of the castle of Biharia—and Brook cites “Bihar” as a Khazar personal name.  Brook speculates that Menmarot might have been a Kabar, a splinter group of Khazars opposed to Judaism.

This is the account given in Brook 2006, pp. 164–165 of the chronicle of Anonymous, apparently derived from Douglas Morton Dunlop:

“The men of chief Marot might have formerly occupied the land towards Erdely, between the river Tisza and the forest of Igfon (in Bihar County), from the river Mures up to the river Szamos.  The grandson of  Marot was named by the Hungarians Menmarot, and he was friendly with many people called Cozar.”

This is what the chronicler actually said, according to Rady (2010), p. 33:

“The land between the Tisza and Igyfon wood, that lies toward Transylvania, from the Mures River up to the Somes River had been occupied by Prince Marot, whose grandson was called Menmarot by the Hungarians, for he had many concubines; and the peoples that are called Kozar inhabited that land.”

The translator remarks in a footnote to this passage:

“The name Kozar has been variously explained as ‘Khazar,’ as a corruption of cozlones, meaning ‘people of Kaliz’ (i.e., of Khwarzm), or as a word meaning ‘goat-herd.’  There is no evidence for the existence of such a group of people, save—as usual with Anonymous—a number of place names.  See Gockenjan, Hilfsvolker, pp. 40–1.”

The most straightforward explanation is that “Kozar” means “Khazar,” but Rady (2010) cautions that Anonymous was known to fabricate names from place-names. Part of the reason Brook’s interpretation differs from mine is that I rely on an actual translation of the Hungarian chronicle attributed to Anonymous, whereas Brook derived his information from Douglas Morton Dunlop who wrote about the Khazars ca. 1966–1972.

There is only so much one can do with such evidence.  When you look at a map, Prince Menmarot’s realm comprised a rather large area, and the question is:  where would his grandfather have found a force of sufficient power to subdue it?  And ordinarily in the post-conquest phase settlers are brought in to stabilize the occupation.  As I state elsewhere, I believe the line to be a genuine Khazar line, but it cannot be called “proven beyond a reasonable doubt.”

Reading these hair-raising tales of murder, pillage, and ruin, one imagines a region so thoroughly laid to waste that not even a hen with a single egg could be found within it.

(Arpad flag.)

NEW YORK STORIES (before the wall)

•June 15, 2016 • Comments Off on NEW YORK STORIES (before the wall)

 

(Click on images to enlarge them.)

Shorto, Russell.  (2005).  The Island At The Center Of The World The Epic Story Of Dutch Manhattan And The Forgotten Colony That Shaped America.  New York:  Vintage Books A Division of Random House, Inc.

According to Shorto, Sarah Rapalje, born in 1625, daughter of Joris Rapalje and Catalina Trico, claimed to be the “first born christian daughter of New Netherland” in what is now New York City. (p. 41)

Sarah Rapalje may have been the first daughter born in the colony, but the following item shows she wasn’t the first child:

“Our information upon this point is derived from the Journal of the Labadist missionaries, Danker and Sluyter, who visited New York in 1679.  While in town they lodged with one Jacob Hellekers, the site of whose house is now occupied by the building No. 255, Pearl St., near Fulton St.  They were therefore near neighbors to Jan Vinje, with whom they soon became acquainted.  He was then, they tell us, about sixty-five years of age, a prominent man, well known to all the citizens, many of whom had themselves resided in the town and had been intimately acquainted with him for from thirty to forty years. It was the common understanding that he was the first person born in the colony, and the date of his birth would therefore go back to the year 1614.  His parents, so the Labadists inform us, were Guillaume Vigne, and his wife Adrienne Cuville, from Valenciennes in France.  How they came to be at New Amsterdam in the early days of the trading-post we do not know, but there is certainly nothing improbable in the assertion that a trader or officer of the post should have had his family with him at New Amsterdam.  In the mouths of their Dutch neighbors, the husband became known as Willem Vinje, and his wife as Adriana Cuvilje.  There is reason to believe that Willem Vinje was the first tenant of the farm laid out north of the present Wall St. by the West India Company, and that he died there.  In 1632 his widow married Jan Jansen Damen, with whom the farm is more generally associated.  At the date last named, as we are informed by an instrument in the Albany records, of the four children of Willem Vinje and his wife, two were married, Maria (to Abraham Verplanck), and Christina (to Dirck Volckertsen), while two, Rachel and Jan, were ‘minors’; as both of the latter, however, were married within the next six years (Rachel to the Secretary Van Tienhoven), they must have been in the latter years of their minority in 1632, and the age of Jan Vinje, according to the Labadists, which would have been seventeen or eighteen at that time, is thus confirmed.” 

Hoff, Henry B., ed.  (1987).  Genealogies of Long Island Families From The New York Genealogical and Biographical Record Volume I Albertson—Polhemius.  Baltimore:  Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc. (p. 280)

The Labadists were followers of Jean de Labadie (1610–1674), a former Jesuit priest, leader of a French Protestant movement.

Christina Vigne, sister to Jan Vigne, married Dirck Volckertsen (or Holgerson), a Norwegian.  They were 2nd great-grandparents of Abraham Fulkerson.  He was born 1739 and baptized at the Readington (New Jersey) Dutch Reformed Church on 18 May 1740, the youngest child of Volkert Volkerse and Dinah van Lieuvin (daughter of Frederick Van Leeuwen and Dinah Jans).

Abraham Fulkerson served in the Revolutionary War as a private in Lt. Reese Bowen’s Company, Washington Co., VA militia under Col. William Campbell, and saw action at the Battle of King’s Mountain, South Carolina, on 7 Oct 1780.  His home, built about 1783 in present-day Scott Co., VA is in the National Register of Historic Places.

A superb website about Abraham Fulkerson is:  http://www.fulkerson.org/abraham.html

———————————————————-

My line to Dirck Volkertsen is as follows:

(1) DIRCK HOLGERSON/VOLKERTSEN m. CHRISTINE VIGNE (dau. of Guillame Vigne & Adrienne Cuvelier)  (2) VOLKERT DIRCKSE b. 15 Nov 1643 m. ANNETJE PHILLIPS (dau. of Phillip Langelans)  (3) DIRCK VOLKERSE b. 1667 m. 27 Sep 1691 MARIA DEWITT (dau. of Peter De Witt & Sarah Albertse) (4) VOLKERT VOLKERSE b. 1692 m. DINAH VAN LIEUVIN b. 9 Dec 1694 (dau. of Frederick Van Leeuwen & Dinah Jans)  (5) ABRAHAM FULKERSON bp. 18 May 1740 d. ca. Apr 1822 m. 2 Jul 1766 in Rowan Co. NC SARAH GIBSON  (6) ELIZABETH FULKERSON m. PEYTON WILCOX  (7) PEYTON MILTON WILCOX m. MINERVA JANE DUNCAN (dau. of Joseph Duncan & Elizabeth Peters)

Abstracted from:

Thompson, Laila Fulkerson.  (1979).  A History Of The Fulkerson Family From 1630 To The Present (in two volumes).   Bakersfield, CA:  The Author.

The New Netherland Project of the New Netherland Institute is translating 12,000 pages of documents relating to the Dutch colony:

http://www.newnetherlandinstitute.org/

This is a great website for those interested in exploring New York before it was New York.

The Andersonville Trial: Lt. Col. N.P. Chipman vs. Captain Henry Wirz

•June 11, 2016 • Comments Off on The Andersonville Trial: Lt. Col. N.P. Chipman vs. Captain Henry Wirz

Chipman, General N.P. (Norton Parker): Judge Advocate of the Military Court.  (1911).  The Tragedy of Andersonville Trial Of Captain Henry Wirz The Prison Keeper. San Francisco:  The Blair-Murdock Company & The Author.  [Free download from Internet Archive and Google Books.]

Few members of the Chipman family have achieved anything in public affairs.  The Chipmans have been witness to history, but rarely made history.  The first of our peculiar spelling to reach this country in 1637 was not an altogether voluntary emigrant. John Chipman was fortunate to marry Hope, the daughter of Mayflower passenger John Howland, and it is from this marriage that our family derives its distinction.

In the case of the Chipmans, pedestrian pursuits like farming have most often been their occupation.  That’s the case with the branch emanating from the Hon. John Chipman, younger of two sons of John and Hope (Howland) Chipman.  His service as assistant governor of Rhode Island, a tiny plot of land noted for receiving Baptists ejected from the Massachusetts Bay Colony, is only a footnote.  If, like his nephew, the Rev. John Chipman (Harvard College class of 1711), he had taken precautions in the education of his children, the history of my branch of the family might have been different.  Instead, we traveled as pioneers fom Rhode Island to Delaware, and from there into the Southern States, with no real plan in mind, lured by the promise of a fertile oasis.

General Norton Parker Chipman (1835-1924), who was with Lincoln at the Gettysburg address, was a descendant of Samuel Chipman, elder brother to my ancestor.  I can claim no close relationship to him, but his service in the Civil War, at the Wirz trial, and prominence in public affairs in California make him an interesting study.

The Andersonville Trial was a 1970 teleplay, directed by George C. Scott, and starring William Shatner as N.P. (Norton Parker) Chipman, who at the time of the trial was a Lt. Colonel.  Richard Basehart played Captain Henry Wirz, commandant of the Confederate POW camp at Andersonville, Georgia, who was asked to explain why so many Union prisoners died of starvation and disease.  12,913 of them, to be exact.

This photo isn’t of a WWII death camp inmate.  It’s a Union prisoner at Andersonville.

As I recall the teleplay (available on DVD from amazon.com), the main idea was that human beings were rather easily disposed of if one was persuaded they weren’t really human.  It wasn’t murder, or neglect.  It’s what animals do.  They die.

So if you want to get rid of people, the first thing you need to do is show that they’re not really human.  A second class life-form.  They speak, they beg, they scream in pain and agony, but they’re not human.  After awhile, you don’t hear anything.  It’s like the wind:  Once it passes, there’s no sound left, but the one in your mind—and that’s easily silenced.  With whatever sedative monsters use.

Captain Henry Wirz was convicted and sentenced to death, the only person tried, convicted, and executed for Civil War war crimes.  His plea for clemency to President Andrew Johnson was ignored.  Wirz was hanged in Washington, DC on 10 Nov 1865.

As is often the case with characters like Wirz, there have been attempts to rehabilitate his memory.  His apologists claim the Confederacy didn’t have the resources to properly feed, house, or provide medical treatment to so many Union POWs.  Detractors suggest the humane thing to do would have been to open the gates of the prison and let the prisoners fend for themselves.

(Wirz monument, erected at Andersonville, GA in 1909 by United Daughters of the Confederacy.  The monument outraged Union veterans.)

Unfortunately, there’s one question about the Andersonville affair that will never be answered:  What did Wirz see just before the rope snapped his neck?  A martyr or only the emptiness beneath his feet?

dawn of the dead: hitler murders the mentally ill

•May 28, 2016 • Comments Off on dawn of the dead: hitler murders the mentally ill

While looking into the infamous Nuremberg Laws of Nazi Germany, I unearthed this memo, known as “Action T4.”  Dated 1 Sep 1939, and signed at Berlin by Adolf Hitler, it authorized the euthanasia of those with incurable medical conditions—mainly the mentally ill and developmentally disabled.

“Reich Leader Bouhler and Dr. med. Brandt are entrusted with the responsibility of extending the authority of physicians, designated by name, so that patients who, on the basis of human judgment [menschlichem Ermessen], are considered incurable, can be granted mercy death [Gnadentod] after a definitive diagnosis.”

Philipp Bouhler was Hitler’s Chief of Chancellery and an SS officer.  He was captured after the war and committed suicide by cyanide pill on 19 May 1945 while in a U.S. internment camp in Austria.

(Bouhler)

His colleague Dr. Karl Brandt, a surgeon and SS officer, was tried by a U.S. military tribunal and hanged on 2 Jun 1948 at Landsberg Prison in Bavaria.

(Brandt)

Estimates of those euthanized under the program, officially or in secret, range up to 200,000.  The method of death was Carbon Monoxide gas or lethal injection.  Hitler personally approved the use of gas as Brandt suggested it was the most “humane” method of extermination.

The Nazis isolated the mentally ill.  Patients were transported to gassing sites in buses with windows painted black.  The buses were manned by SS personnel wearing white coats to deceive patients into believing they would receive medical services.  Patients were usually euthanized within 24 hours after arrival at a gassing site.

At Hartheim Euthanasia Centre near Linz in Austria, one of six gassing sites, at least 18,269 patients had been euthanized by Aug 1941, using a gas chamber disguised as a shower with a capacity of 150 persons.  The bodies were cremated and the ashes scattered in the confluence of the rivers Danube and Traun at Linz.

(View of Danube River at Linz.  A postcard backdrop for murder.)

“Action T4” was part of an overall “racial hygiene” program intended to purge Aryan society of the weak and undesirable.  The Nazis feared the public would react negatively and deliberately selected the mentally ill and developmentally disabled to inaugurate the program as their unsuitability for life was easily depicted in propaganda.

(Nazi propaganda slide containing photographs of mentally ill and developmentally disabled patients, part of a campaign to prepare the public for the euthanasia program.  The patient at the top is wearing a straitjacket with his arms tied to the bench.  Undoubtedly such shots were staged to make the subjects appear as cretinous as possible.  “Idioten!” is German for “Idiot!”)

According to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum website:

The physically and mentally handicapped were viewed as “useless” to society, a threat to Aryan genetic purity, and, ultimately, unworthy of life. At the beginning of World War II, individuals who were mentally retarded, physically handicapped, or mentally ill were targeted for murder in what the Nazis called the “T-4,” or “euthanasia,” program.

The Nazis used these unfortunate people as guinea pigs: the knowledge gained in killing them was later applied in the wholesale slaughter of Jews, Gypsies, and political prisoners in the death camps.

8 Million murders later, on 30 Apr 1945, Adolf Hitler and his wife Eva Braun committed suicide in their private apartment in a Berlin bunker.  The Russians claimed to have recovered the cremated remains.  Like most of his victims, Hitler has no grave.

Above: Memorial dedicated on 2 Sep 2014 in Berlin for the victims of the Action T4 program.  The memorial features a wall of blue glass which is “an abstract, yet vivid way of showing visitors just how easily a group of fellow humans and even neighbours could be separated and isolated, just like those living a ‘life unworthy of life’ were isolated and killed during the Nazi dictatorship.  Architect Ursula Wilms has said that the blue glass wall symbolises the sky and stands for the victims of the extermination programme.”  The glass wall allows us to see one another when previously we were hidden.

Revised June 25, 2016